atc_brief_ce5614 - Airport and Airspace Operations in the...

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Unformatted text preview: Airport and Airspace Operations in the US (Air Traffic Control) Dr. Antonio A. Trani Associate Professor Department of Civil Engineering Virginia Tech Virginia Tech 1 of 68 Discussion of Flight Rules Flight Rules • IFR - instrument flight rules (ATC controlled flights) • VFR - visual flight rules (> 3 nm visibility and 1000 ft. from clou ds) Weather conditions • VMC - visual meteorological conditions • IMC - instrument meteorological conditions An airliner could fly in VMC conditions but always under IFR flight plan rules Virginia Tech 2 of 68 Airways are Like Highways in the Sky Blacksburg United States Airways Miami Virginia Tech 3 of 68 The Role of Air Traffic Control Air traffic controllers maintain aircraft separations and help pilots navigate to their destination providing verbal and datalink instructions Virginia Tech 4 of 68 Classification of ATC Services There are 3 control components of ATC and one support component. These components interact all time among themselves via tel e phon e o r mi crow ave data lin ks. Control Components: • Air Traffic Control Systems Command Center (ATCSCC) • Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCC) • Terminal Approach/Departure Control Facilities (TCA TRACON ) • Airport Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) Support Component (Information) • Flight Service Stations (FSS) Virginia Tech 5 of 68 US Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCC • Twenty one ARTCC facilities in the U.S. • 30-50 sectors (horizontal and vertical) in each ARTCC • Control over 200-300 nm from radar sites (use of multiple radars to track targets at long distances) • Use o f lon g rang e radars fo r surv eillan ce (12 second s bet ween scans or update rate) • The size of the ARTCC varies because traffic density vary over NAS (see Figure) Virginia Tech 6 of 68 Enroute Control Sectors in the US • A well organized and hierarchical system • Communications are via Voice channels (one per controller) source: FAA Instrument Procedure Handbook Virginia Tech 7 of 68 Airspace Sectorization to Control Flights Latitude (deg.) T h e N A S a i r s p a c e i s d i v i d e d i n t o Centers to control flights Washington 35 Enroute Center Atlanta 34 113 91 Enroute Center 131 33 126 129 32 31 87 61 62 30 23 24 29 51 93 115 Ja6cksonville 8 Enrou89 Cente9 te r 4 77 40 119 121 Sector 143 55 75 84 28 Miami Enroute Center 27 26 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 Longi tud e (deg.) Virginia Tech -78 -76 8 of 68 Enroute Separations (Vertical) • In January 20, 2005 the FAA instituted Reduced Vertical Separation Minima (RVSM) in the domestic US airspace • Canada and Mexico (and Gulf of Mexico) also implemented the same RVSM rules on the same day • The new vertical separations allow six new flight levels to be selected every 1,000 between flight levels 290 and 410 • North Atlantic operations use RVSM since March 1997 and Pacific operations since February 2000 • Europe started RVSM operations in January 2002 Virginia Tech 9 of 68 • Asia-Europe (South of Himalayas) started RVSM operations in November 2003 Enroute Separations (vertical) Virginia Tech 10 of 68 RVSM Issues • Aircraft are required to comply with tighter altimetric capability (n ot all aircraft in NAS are equi pped in 2 005) • Aircraft not m eetin g new alti metric capabi lit ies can sti ll operate in NAS (below FL 290 or above FL 410 if authorized by ATC) Literature on RVSM 1. Guidance 91-RVSM, Change 2 (2/10/04) - Guidance Material on the Approval of Operators/Aircraft for RVSM Operations 2. Air Transportation Operations Inspector ís Handbook (FAA Order 8400.10). HBAT 03-06 (9/8/03). "Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum Airspace.î HBAT 03-06 is incorporated into 8400.10 Change 27 (5/25/04). 8400.10, Volume 4, Chapter 1, Section 5, Paragraph 220 is now ì RVSM Airspace". Virginia Tech 11 of 68 ATC Surveillance Mechanisms ADS-B, GPS (2005-2010) Radar (Today) ADS = Automatic Dependent Surveillance GPS = Global Positioning System Virginia Tech 12 of 68 Terminal Approach and Departure Control Facilities (TRACON) • Control terminal traffic (both arrivals and departures) • Typically 50-80 nm from the aircraft • Some TRACON control more than one airport (SW California) • TRACONs are divided into sectors to ease workload for controllers • TRACONs meter traffic approaching an airport facility • Heavy use of verbal advisories ( vectors ) - AA52 turn right heading 120 - UA53 descent and maintain 170 (17,000 ft.) - Aeromexico reduce to 230 (IAS airspeed) Virginia Tech 13 of 68 • Minimum separation inside TRACON is either 5 nm (>4 0 nm fro m radar ant e nna) or 3 nm (if < 4 0 nm fro m radar antenna) assuming no wake vortex effect is present Virginia Tech 14 of 68 Sample TRACON (Roanoke) Side View 5,200 ft. Class C Airspace 3,800 ft. 3,400 ft. 2,132 ft. Virginia Tech Airport 1,176 ft. R k Ai t Notes: 1) The volume of airspace controlled by ROA Approach control looks like an inverted wedding cake 2) Typical of many TRACONs in the U.S. 3) The complexity of the TRACON increases as traffic increases Virginia Tech 15 of 68 Sample Flight Paths to and from Miami Airport Atlantic Ocean Tampa Bay TRACON Radar Coverage Aircraft Tracks Mi ami Intl. Airport Gulf of MÈxico -84 -83 -82 -81 -80 -79 -78 -77 Longi tud e (deg.) Virginia Tech 16 of 68 Detailed View of Flight Tracks (ETMS Data) Arrivals Departures Miami Intl. Airport -81 -80.8 -80.6 -80.4 -80.2 -80 -79.8 Longitude (deg.) Virginia Tech 17 of 68 Terminal Area Operations in Atlanta (Departures) Virginia Tech 18 of 68 Terminal Area Operations in Atlanta (Arrivals) Four Corner Post System Virginia Tech 19 of 68 Detail of Operations at Atlanta Airport Arrivals in Blue Departures in Red Virginia Tech 20 of 68 Terminal Area Operations in New York City One Day of Traffic into 5 New York Area Airports Virginia Tech 21 of 68 Terminal Operations in New York LGA ARR to 31 JFK 31L DEP LGA ARR to 4 • Approaches to La Guardia Airport (LGA) (dark green color lines) are executed in close proximity with departures from JFK Airport (light green color lines) • Operations at LGA, JFK and EWR require coordination Virginia Tech 22 of 68 Air Traffic Control Tower • Control aircraft traffic (both arrivals and departures) at the airport (includes ramps near gates, taxiways, runways, and airspace up to 5 nm from airport) • Three controller posts - Local controller (runways and landing areas) - Ground control (taxiways and aprons) - Clearance delivery (provides information on flight plans) • Some ATCT divide workload into East-West operations • Use of short and precise language - AA52 taxi to RWY 36 via alpha-3 - UA53 clear for takeoff, wind 040 at 12 - Aeromexico clear to land RWY 36 Virginia Tech 23 of 68 Sample Airport (JFK) with Taxiway and Gate Detail 13L 22R 13R Terminal Building 22L 31R 31L 4L Virginia Tech 4R 24 of 68 ATC Wake Vortex Separations Near Runways IFR In-trail Separations Near Runways in nautical miles for Medium and Small Size Hub Airports LEAD ACFT. Heavy Light Small Trailing Aircraft HEAVY LIGHT SMALL 4.00 3.00 3.00 5.00 3.00 3.00 6.00 4.00 3.00 IFR In-trail Separations Near Runways in nautical miles for Large Size Hub Airport s Trailing Aircraft LEAD ACFT. Heavy Light Small HEAVY LI G H T S M A LL 4.00 2.50 2.50 5.00 2.50 2.50 6.00 4.00 2.50 Virginia Tech 25 of 68 A Hypothetical Flight • Suppose we fly a Cessna Citation II from Virginia Tech Airport to Miami International • The flight takes us across four ARTCC Centers in the U.S. (Washington, Atlanta, Jacksonville, and Miami) • The aircraft is under continuos control of ATC services even if the day is clear (CAVU conditions) Cessna Citation II Virginia Tech 26 of 68 The Flight Plan (Current NAS) • The current plan uses high-altitude Jet Routes (Jet airways) • A codified instrument approach procedure (Heath II) is used during the transition into the Miami TRACON Virginia Tech 27 of 68 Activities of the Flight • Pilots arrive to VPI Airport (BCB) an hour before the flight (to review weather and submit a flight plan) • Few minutes before departure they contact Roanoke ATC for flight plan approval • BCB has no control tower (but a UNICOM frequency is used to e s t a b l i s h i nt e n t - b l i n d v e r b a l s t a t e m e n t s ) • Out of BCB pilots contact Roanoke TRACO N for climb instructions (to intercept J-48 a Jet Route) • At FL 100 (10,000 ft.) the pilots contact Washington Center ZDC (briefly) • A few minutes later ZDC hands-off the flight to ZTL (Atlanta ARTCC) Virginia Tech 28 of 68 Climb Procedure Out of BCB Blacksburg Virginia Tech 29 of 68 Flight Activities • ZTL controllers (4 sectors total for this trip) direct this flight to switch to J-53 to Spartanburg VOR (a NAVAID facility) • The aircraft reach es its enrout e c r u i s i n g a l t i t u d e o f F L 3 5 0 (heading is around 187 degrees - South) • The flight then moves over to J-81 West of Augusta, GA • 100 nm North of Jacksonville ZTL controllers hand-off the flight to ZJX controllers (Jacksonville Center) • The flight takes J-45 and passes a few miles West of Daytona Beach (flies over Daytona Beach VOR called DAB) • The flight is handed-off to ZMA (Miami ARTCC Center) • ZMA controllers start descending the flight 100 nm from MIA VOR near Vero Beach VOR Virginia Tech 30 of 68 Enroute Part of the Trip Virginia Tech 31 of 68 Final Part of the Trip (Activities) • The flight is handed over to MIA TRACON 60 nm from the airport East of the West Palm Beach VOR • The flight progresses inside the MIA terminal area flying a codified Standard Terminal Arrival Route (STAR) • The flight is continuously given vectors inside the 50 nm radius from MIA • The TRACON controller sequences our flight behind a ì heavyî (Boeing 757 of American Airlines) and establishes 6 nm of separation • 5 nm from MIA airport the flight is handed-off to MIA tower • The flight lands on RWY 27 R per local controller instructions • The flight taxis to the ramp following instructions of a ground controller Virginia Tech 32 of 68 Final Approach and Terminal Area Vero Beach Miami Virginia Tech 33 of 68 Aircraft Instrumentation and Navigation Modern transport aircraft have plenty of instrumentation to navigate across the U.S. and over the oceans Virginia Tech 34 of 68 Navigation in Free Flight In Free Flight a pilot navigates directly from an origin to a destination using Satellite Navigation (SATNAV) systems GPS Network of Satell ites Virginia Tech 35 of 68 Sample Individual Free Flight Track Flight plans will be more flexible and allow pilots to save time and fuel Constant heading segments Flight plan way-points Altitude (kft) 30 Climb Descent 20 DFW 10 Pseudo-globe circle route 0 80 MIA 29.5 29 28. 5 28 85 2 7. 5 90 Longitude (deg) 27 95 2 6. 5 1 00 Virginia Tech Latitude (deg) 26 36 of 68 North Atlantic and Oceanic Operations • 1963 - Reich and Marks start development of the first Collision Risk Assessment model • 1 9 6 8 - R e i c h - M a r k s m o d e l a c c e pt e d f o r o c e a n i c o p e r a t i o n s - Established longitudinal, lateral and vertical separation minimums to fly over the North Atlantic - 120 nautical mile lateral separation (90 nm separation considered unsafe using the model) - The longitudinal separation was 20 minutes initially - 15 minutes in-trail adopted in 1978 Virginia Tech 37 of 68 Reich-Marks Model • Reich- Marks model (target level of safety at 2.5x10e-9 coll ision s per fli ght ho ur) 2000 ft Sx = 20 minutes 120 nm Virginia Tech 38 of 68 Composite Rule Changes • 1971 - First reduction in lateral separation (120/60 composite rule separation) 2000 ft. 60 nm Sx = 15 minutes 120 nm Virginia Tech 39 of 68 MNPS Changes in NATS • 1981-1983 Minimum Navigation Performance (MNPS) • Navigation equipment was more accurate 2000 ft. 60 nm Sx = 10 minutes 120 nm Virginia Tech 40 of 68 MNPS Changes • Avionics/aircraft equipment needs to be certified under stricter rules to operate in NATS (North Atlantic Track System) Vertical Error PDF µ = 0 ft. ! = 82 ft. Lateral NAV Error PDF µ = 0 ft. ! = 3 000 ft. Virginia Tech 41 of 68 RVSM Rule Changes In 19 90 a new stud y co nclu ded that 100 0 ft. v e rti cal separatio n w a s acceptable over the North Atlantic 1000 ft. Sx = 10 minutes 60 nm Virginia Tech 42 of 68 New Separations over NATS (North Atlantic Organized Track System) • 1000 foot vertical separation between flight levels 290 and 390 (implemented in March 1997) • 60 nm lateral separation between adjacent flight tracks • 10 minute longitudinal separation between successive aircraft (about 150 km if flying at Mach 0.80) • Requires strict enforcement of Minimum Equipment Lists (MLE) and RVSM (Reduced Vertical Separation Measures) certification (aircraft specific) • Wake turbulence and issue sometimes (pilots are given the freedom to deviate 2 miles off the track to avoid wake turbulence) Virginia Tech 43 of 68 Extended Range Twin-Engine Over the Water Operations • ETOPS is the acronym of extended range, twin-engine over the water operations • ETOPS operations with twin engine aircraft started in 1985 with Boeing 767-200 flights (between Europe and North America) • Today more than 90% of the North Atlantic flights are conducted using twin-engine aircraft • Airlines worldwide conduct 1,700 ETOPS flights per day • More than 5.5 million ETOPS flights since 1985 using twin engine aircraft (source: Boeing 2007) • These aircraft have demonstrated high reliability and thus are certified to fly over the oceans with 180 to 207 minute diversion rules (time to a nearest airport at single engine speed) Virginia Tech 44 of 68 • More recently, Boeing obtained certification for longer diversion rules for the Boeing 777 family of aircraft (see article at 070514b_nr.html) • Boeing expects to certify newer versions of Boeing 777 aircraft to fly 330 minute diversion rules • More information at Transport Canada web site : http:// definitions.htm • More information about ETOPS from the FAA is found at: http:/ / Virginia Tech 45 of 68 ETOPS Trans-Pacific Flights Virginia Tech 46 of 68 ETOPS Requirements (Transport Canada) 1) Required aeroplane limitations including airline procedures for ETOPS certification 2) Revision to the performance section including fuel consumption rates; 3) Flig ht crew p r o c e d u r e s ; 4) Aircraft certication - "the aeroplane has been found to meet the type design reliability and performance criteria for ETOPS operations in accordance with th is document. Compliance with these type design criteria alone does not constitute approval to conduct ETOPS operations" Virginia Tech 47 of 68 Sample ETOPS Flight Dis tanc e t ravel ed (nm) 4359.3772 80 70 Latitude (deg.) 60 50 CDG (Paris) 40 30 IAH (Houston) 20 10 0 -140 -120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 Longitude (deg.) Note: There are critical sections of this flight where the aircraft could be ~120 minutes away from the nearest airport (assuming a single engine speed) Virginia Tech 48 of 68 Possible Diversion Points (Airports) Di s tanc e traveled (nm ) 4359.3772 75 70 65 Keflavik 60 Shannon 55 50 Gander 45 40 Santa Maria 35 30 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 Virginia Tech -30 -20 -10 0 49 of 68 Have There Been Diversions? Two very well known cases: a) Air Transat Airbus A330-200 lost both engines (due to fuel starvation) over the Atlantic and landed safely at Lajes (in the Azores) See report at: 20060608181643moptc.pdf or read article at: http:// b) Boeing 767-200ER traveled more than 300 minutes in a flight from North America to Hawaii (landed safely with engine operativ e) Virginia Tech 50 of 68 Types of Critical Failures in ETOPS Operations Pressurization failure • Pressure vessel (fuselage) no longer maintains a low-altitude cabin conditions (<8,000 ft) at cruise altitude • Aircraft is required to descend to 10,000 ft. allowing passengers to breathe no rm ally • High drag condition (high density due to low altitude cruise) • Fuel reserves are critical because two engines are running Engine failure • Engine failure requires a descent to a suitable one-engine cruise altitude • M o d e r n t w i n e n g i n e a i r c r a f t h a v e s i n g l e - e n gi n e s e r v i c e c e i l i n g s of 21,000-29,000 ft. Virginia Tech 51 of 68 • Modest drag cond iti on (i ntermedi ate alti tude) 5 4.5 x 10 5 4.5 Drag (N) at: 6000 meters Thrus t (N) at: 6000 meters Drag (N) at: 6000 met ers Thrus t (N) at: 6000 meters 4 4 3.5 Drag or Thrus t (Newtons ) Drag or Thrus t (Newtons ) 3.5 3 x 10 Two Engines 2.5 3 One Engi ne 2.5 2 2 1.5 1.5 1 0. 5 1 0.6 0.7 Mac h Number 0.8 0.9 0.5 0.5 Virginia Tech 0.6 0.7 Mac h Number 0.8 0.9 52 of 68 Separations in the National Airspace System Much smaller than over NATS (5 nm for distance > 40 nm from radar) • Positive control (radar control for all IFR flights) • 2000 ft. above 41,000 ft. (flight level 410) • 1000 ft. below FL 410 • Above FL 290 RVSM requires aircraft equipment certification Free Flight introduces a new dimension in complexity • NASA / FAA want to reduce incidents and collisions by a factor of 5-10 in the next decade • Need to assess the collision risk over NAS if reduced separation criteria is used Virginia Tech 53 of 68 Implications for Air Transportation Engineering • NAS system capacity is typically constrained at the airport level • Many ATC services housed at the airport - Airport surveillance radars - VOR - very high frequency omnidirectional range and TACAN systems - ILS - instrument landing systems - Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) • ATC aircraft separations dictate the capacity of the airport and in some cases that of the airspace • Runway separation criteria are dictated by ATC technology ( m o r e o n t hi s l a t e r ) Virginia Tech 54 of 68 Runway Separations at Airports Depend on Airport Surveillance Technology The same technology used to establish the position of aircraft in the airspace is used to perform surveillance activities near airports • Radar tech nol ogy has inh e rent w eaknesses for surveill ance • The farthest from the antenna, the larger the uncertainty to determine accurate po sitio ns • Primary radar (skin paint) • Seco ndary radar (transpond er insi de ai rcraft - Mo des C and S) Virginia Tech 55 of 68 Independent ILS or Precision Approaches • IFR operational conditions • 4,300 ft. between runway centerlines • Standard radar systems (scan rate of 4.8 seconds or more) • Radar surveillance is available Ru nway 1 Airport Terminal Independent arrival streams 4,300 ft. or more Runw ay 2 Virginia Tech 56 of 68 Independent Parallel Approaches using the Precision Runway Monitor (PRM) in IFR • The purpose of this standard is to use the Precision Runway Monitor (PRM) to allow independent ILS approaches to parallel runways separated down to 3,000 feet (FAA, 1998) • This standard currently applies with PRM (fast-scan technology) • Radar scan rat e of 1 seco nd or less Virginia Tech 57 of 68 What is a PRM - Precision Runway Monitor? Two pieces of software and hardware comprise the PRM system: • Air Traffic Controller display (shows the aircraft blips plus the NTZ - No Transgression Zone (NTZ) • Fast scanning radar (with tau <= 1.0 seconds) This system reduces the uncertainty of knowing where aircraft are (i.e., thanks to its fast scan rate) Virginia Tech 58 of 68 Independent Triple and Quadruple Approaches To Parallel Runways (IFR) • The idea behind this concept is to allow triple and quadruple parallel approaches to runways separated by 5,000 feet using s t a n d a r d r a d a r s y s t e m s (scan updat e rate of 4.8 second s) at airports having field elevations of less than 1,000 feet • Increase to 5,300 ft. spacing be t w e e n r u n w a y s f o r e l e v a t i o n s above 5,000 ft. p Runway 1 Runw ay 2 Runw ay 3 R 5,000 ft. or more 2 Virginia Tech 59 of 68 Independent Departures in IFR Conditions and Standard Radar (" => 4.8 s.) • Simultaneous departures can be conducted if two parallel ru nways are locat ed 2,500 ft. p Runway 1 2,500 ft. Ru nway 2 Virginia Tech 60 of 68 Independent Departures and Arrivals in IFR Conditions and Standard Radar (" => 4.8 s.) • Simultaneous departures and arrivals can be conducted if two parallel runways are located 2,500 ft. Departure Stream Runway 1 2,500 ft. Runway 2 Virginia Tech Arrival Stream 61 of 68 Staggered Runways Rule (Decreasing Separation) I f t wo p a r a l l e l r u n w a y s a r e s t a g g e r e d ( i . e . , t h e i r r u n wa y t h r e s h o l d s are offset) use: • D e c r e a s e r u n w a y c e n t e r l i n e s e p aratio n by 10 0 ft. for ev ery 50 0 ft. of stagger Runw ay 1 2,300 ft. 1,000 ft. Runway 2 Virginia Tech 62 of 68 Staggered Runways Rule (Increasing Runway Centerline Separation) I f t wo p a r a l l e l r u n w a y s a r e s t a g g e r e d ( i . e . , t h e i r r u n wa y t h r e s h o l d s are offset) use: • Increase runway centerline separation by 100 ft. for every 500 ft. of stag ger Runw ay 1 2,700 ft. 1,000 ft. Runway 2 Virginia Tech Overlap Region 63 of 68 Independent Arrivals under VFR Conditions Independent simultaneous arrivals can be conducted with at least 700ft between runway centerlines if: • VFR conditions (visibility > 3 nm) • No wake vortex effect is present Independent arrival streams Ru nway 1 700 ft. or more N o w a k e v or t e x effect (seldom the case) Increase to 1,200 ft. if aircraft belong to Design group s V and V I Runw ay 2 Virginia Tech 64 of 68 Independent Simultaneous Approaches to Converging Runways Procedures governing independent converging approaches require that the distance between the missed approach points be 3 n.m. apart and that the Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS) surfaces not overlap. Because of th e s e r e s t r i c t i o n s , m i n i m u m s a r e high, thereby limiting the number of airports NTZ - No Transgression Zone Assumes the Missed Approach Envelopes are Non-overlapping Virginia Tech 65 of 68 Dependent Approaches to Parallel Runways (IFR) Procedures exist to conduct dependent arrivals when runway separation is below 4,300 ft. and above 2,500 ft. (standard radar). Runway 1 2,500 ft. or more D e penden t arri val streams 1.5 nm 1.5 n m Ru nway 2 Virginia Tech 66 of 68 Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approaches (SOIA) Allows siimultaneous approaches to runways spaced less than 3,000 ft. but more than 750 ft. San Francisco International airport is the first airport approved for the procedure (see diagram) Requi rem e nts: • Pilot training • Dual communications • ATC software/hardware (PRM radar) Virginia Tech 67 of 68 Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approaches (SOIA) SFO International 9,000 ft. ILS Approach LDA Approach 3,000 ft. No Transgression Zone Virginia Tech 68 of 68 ...
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