Bi 133-07-lect_1_v3

Bi 133-07-lect_1_v3 - EXPRESSION OF THE EMOTIONS IN FLIES?...

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Unformatted text preview: EXPRESSION OF THE EMOTIONS IN FLIES? EXPRESSION OF THE EMOTIONS IN HUMANS …. SAD 3/26/07 Bi 133 D.J. Anderson 1 WHAT CAN/CAN'T BE STUDIED IN ANIMALS CAN STUDY: CAN STUDY: – – – – 3/26/07 – Consciousness – Subjective 'feeling states' – Self-awareness Bi 133 D.J. Anderson 3/26/07 ANGRY AFRAID Bi 133 D.J. Anderson 2 WHAT DO WE WANT TO UNDERSTAND ABOUT EMOTIONS BY STUDYING ANIMALS? • Identify neural 'substrates' of different emotions – Cause-and-effect vs. correlation, by functional perturbation of Cause-and-effect vs neurons/brain regions CAN'T STUDY: Behavioral expression Internal state changes Interoception Feedback of behavior on state changes – Emotional learning/memory – Evolutionary origins of emotion and types of emotions – Affect? HAPPY • Loss-of-function/gain-of-function – Tracing neural circuitry – Identifying 'chemistry' of emotions: neurotransmitters, neuromodulators , neuropeptides , hormones; the circuits on neuropeptides which they act • Identify neural basis of generic features of emotional expression: arousal, 'valence' • Identifying genes involved in controlling emotions – Functional manipulations • Identifying drugs for treating emotional disorders – Screening, testing 3 3/26/07 MEASURING EMOTION AND AFFECT IN ANIMALS Bi 133 D.J. Anderson 4 OBJECTIVE MEASURES OF EMOTION IN ANIMALS • Behavior – How do we know it's emotional behavior? • Homology (anthropomorphism) • Inference from context – How do we know what it "means"? • The tautology of inferring emotional states from behavior • Internal "markers" – Heart rate, blood pressure (autonomic arousal) – Stress hormone levels (endocrine status) Darwin, C.R. (1872) The expression of the emotions in man and animals. Chapter 1 3/26/07 Bi 133 D.J. Anderson 5 3/26/07 Bi 133 D.J. Anderson 6 1 FUNCTIONS OF EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION BEHAVIORAL EXPRESSIONS OF EMOTIONS IN ANIMALS • SURVIVAL OF INDIVIDUAL – Freezing, camouflage: escape predator detection – Flight: escape predator entrapment – Offensive aggression: attain food • SOCIAL FUNCTIONS (COMMUNICATION) – – – – Hissing, growling, teeth baring: deters aggression Alarm vocalizations: warn conspecifics of threat Alarm of Singing, plumage displays: attract potential mates Crying: attracts attention, feeding Darwin, Darwin, C.R. (1872) op. cit. op. 3/26/07 Bi 133 D.J. Anderson 7 – 'Emotion' is the observable motor behavior, e.g., freezing, vocalization, grimacing, etc. – Internal state may be generated in parallel 3/26/07 DARWIN, PANSKEPP – 'Emotion' is an internal state, internal state which is expressed which expressed by observable motor behaviors. – 2nd Principle: serviceable, associated habits Bi 133 D.J. Anderson Bi 133 D.J. Anderson 8 SERIAL vs. PARALLEL VIEWS OF SERIAL vs EMOTION AND BEHAVIOR IN ANIMALS ALTERNATIVE DEFINITIONS OF 'EMOTION' IN ANIMALS DAMASIO, DOLAN 3/26/07 9 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION IN ANIMALS REQURIES STIMULI TO ELICIT THEIR EXPRESSION DARWIN JAMES-LANGE STIMULUS PANSKEPP STIMULUS STIMULUS Stimulus 'b' INTERNAL STATE CHANGES (arousal, reward/punishment anticipation, etc.) BEHAVIORAL EXPRESSION 3/26/07 BEHAVIORAL EXPRESSION INTERNAL INTERNAL STATE STATE CHANGES BEHAVIOR INTERNAL STATE CHANGES Bi 133 D.J. Anderson 10 FREEZING AS A BEHAVIORAL EXPRESSION OF LEARNED FEAR • Experimental psychology: – Often required training (conditioned responses) – Artificial – Well-controllable (e.g., 2 kHz tone) • Ethology/behavioral neuroscience – Innate – Naturalistic – Difficult to control 3/26/07 Bi 133 D.J. Anderson LeDoux , J.E. (1996) The Emotional Brain 11 3/26/07 Bi 133 D.J. Anderson 12 2 ACCOUSTIC STARTLE AND FREEZING IN MICE 3/26/07 Bi 133 D.J. Anderson 13 ULTRASONIC VOCALIZATIONS ARE PRODUCED DURING FEAR CONDITIONING 3/26/07 Bi 133 D.J. Anderson 14 OTHER MEASURES CORRELATED WITH FEAR HOW DO WE IDENTIFY 'EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION' IN ANIMALS, IN CASES WHERE WE CANNOT ARGUE BY HOMOLOGY OR ANALOGY? 3/26/07 Bi 133 D.J. Anderson 15 3/26/07 Bi 133 D.J. Anderson 16 General properties of behavioral expression of emotional states DIMENSIONAL MODELS OF EMOTION • Associated with a level of arousal • Associated with a valence (positive/negative) intensity – Darwin's principle of antithesis - 3/26/07 valence + Bi 133 D.J. Anderson 17 3/26/07 Bi 133 D.J. Anderson 18 3 DARWIN'S PRINCIPLE OF 'ANTITHESIS' General properties of behavioral expression of emotional states • Opposite emotions produce opposite behavioral expression • Activation of antagonistic sets of muscles (flexors vs . extensors) • Amplitude or quality of behavior scalable in relation to degree of arousal – Quantitative increases (amplitude) of behavior – See qualitative shifts in behavior as level of arousal/intensity of emotional state increases "Dog approaching another dog with hostile intentions" 3/26/07 "Dog in humble and affectionate frame of mind" Bi 133 D.J. Anderson 19 QUALITATIVE SHIFTS IN BEHAVIOR CHANGE WITH INTENSITY OF EMOTIONAL STATE 3/26/07 Bi 133 D.J. Anderson 20 LOW-LEVEL AGGRESSION IN FLIES: LUNGING Lunging: one fly rears up on hind legs and snaps down on the other 3/26/07 Bi 133 D.J. Anderson 21 3/26/07 Liming Wang HIGH-LEVEL AGGRESSION IN FLIES: BOXING Bi 133 D.J. Anderson Suse Hoyer/Martin Suse Hoyer/Martin Heisenberg 22 General properties of behavioral expression of emotional states • Amplitude or quality of behavior scalable in relation to degree of arousal – See qualitative shifts in behavior as level of arousal/intensity of emotional state increases • State persists beyond stimuli that elicited it • Can assign "value" to behavioral choices • Mnemonic access- can recall state 3/26/07 Liming Wang Bi 133 D.J. Anderson 23 3/26/07 Bi 133 D.J. Anderson 24 Ed Kravitz (Harvard) 4 BEHAVIORAL ASSAYS OF NOCICEPTION MEASURING 'EMOTIONAL BEHAVIOR' vs. AFFECT BEHAVIOR' vs • Measures sensory/discriminative component of pain • Primarily a spinal reflex: • Nociception vs. pain Nociception •Gustation vs. taste affect 3/26/07 – Thermal: hot plate (jumping, tail flick) – Mechanical: von Frey filaments (paw withdrawal) – Chemical: formalin injection (licking, paw shaking) Bi 133 D.J. Anderson 25 NOCICEPTION IN DROSOPHILA NOCICEPTION DROSOPHILA LARVAE 3/26/07 Bi 133 D.J. Anderson 26 THE AFFECTIVE COMPONENT OF PAIN No touch Light touch Hot probe 3/26/07 Bi 133 D.J. Anderson 27 MEASURING THE AFFECTIVE COMPONENT OF PAIN Bi 133 D.J. Anderson 3/26/07 Bi 133 D.J. Anderson 28 NEUROANATOMICAL CRITERIA FOR PAIN AFFECT • Conditioned place aversion • Ultrasonic vocalizations • Neuroanatomic criteria 3/26/07 "The human feeling of pain is both a distinct sensation and a motivation – that is, a specific sensation specific emotion that reflects homeostatic behavioral drive, similar to temperature, itch, hunger and thirst." Logic: If a part of the brain that is activated during pain affect in humans (e.g., amygdala ) is involved in a pain response in in amygdala animals, then it likely relates to the affective component 29 3/26/07 Bi 133 D.J. Anderson 30 5 MEASURING TASTE IN MICE: A GUSTOMETER 3/26/07 Bi 133 D.J. Anderson DATA FROM A GUSTOMETER ASSAY 31 Bi 133 D.J. Anderson Bi 133 D.J. Anderson 32 DATA FROM TESTS OF TASTE AFFECT MEASURING THE 'AFFECTIVE' COMPONENT OF TASTE 3/26/07 3/26/07 33 3/26/07 Bi 133 D.J. Anderson 34 6 ...
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