emotion_2011

emotion_2011 - Emotion and Social Behavior Nov. 28, 2011...

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Unformatted text preview: Emotion and Social Behavior Nov. 28, 2011 Ralph Adolphs 1 Emotion theories ANS fear & disgust Emotion structures hypothalamus OFC Amygdala 2 What is an emotion? Not cognition 3 Dual Process Theories System I: --automatic --emotional --rapid System 2: --effortful/ controlled --rational --slow 4 Some Emotions • Basic Emotions: happiness, surprise,fear, anger, disgust, sadness • Social/Moral Emotions: guilt, shame, pride, embarrassment, jealousy 5 Emotions are important! We (nearly) always feel some emotion Emotions are what matters most about our experience 6 lings, and collecting people as mbersome has rarely p between as always 9). ing a Web orporated, to create e reports road range aily activts through ring their questions, e at www. currently n samples rent coun- is a cognitive ach tional cost. References an 1. M. E. Raichle et (2001). 2. K. Christoff, A. M J. W. Schooler, P (2009). 3. R. L. Buckner, J. Ann. N. Y. Acad 4. J. Smallwood, J. W 5. M. F. Mason et 6. J. Smallwood, E. J. Cogn. Neurosc 7. R. L. Buckner, D. 8. J. C. McVay, M. 16, 857 (2009) 9. M. J. Kane et al 10. D. Kahneman, A A. A. Stone, Scie 11. A. B. Krueger, D. 12. Materials and m material on Scie Killingsworth & Gilbert, ScienceSmallwood, A. 13. J. 2010 7 Emotion 9, 271 Process Theories of Emotion 8 Motor output at different levels Reflexes --spinal --central "Fixed action patterns" Emotional reactions Actions Long-term plans Stimulus-coupled Stimulus decoupled 9 Some characteristics of an emotion 1. Phasic (vs. moods) 2. Has onset, duration, decay 3. In humans, often regulated 4. Can be broken down into some components Stimulus Evaluation Context Expectation Emotional Response Feeling Individual Differences 10 11 12 Susan Fiske et al., TICS (2006) 11:77-83 13 14 What is Emotion? --behavior, feeling, or social construct? Central states of an organism that are used 1. To denote the value of a stimulus or action 2. To help motivate an adaptive response 3. To modulate other aspects of cognition 4. To communicate some of this socially 15 Eliciting Emotion What emotions can you signal/elicit by: -facial expressions -complex scenes -sounds other than language -language -music -odors -touch 16 Simple stimuli Ziemann et al., Neuron 2009 17 Charles Darwin (1872) "The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals" --3 principles: serviceable associated habits antithesis direct action of nervous system --idea of “basic” emotions 18 19 20 Modules for recognizing emotions from faces - Fear: amygdala - Disgust: basal ganglia (HD), insula 21 tion pressure that may have shaped fearful and disgusted expressions. an to nd be ow ild ay een are the do ey In ns nd ne s of of the of ual on, gh a b Disgust Lowered brow Narrowed eyes Narrowed nostrils Closed mouth Fear Raised brow Widened eyes Flared nostrils Open mouth Figure 1 Fearful versus disgusted expressions. Note how the various parts of the face move in opposite directions in the two expressions, and therefore have opposite effects on sensory intake. Facial images from the NimStim set of facial expressions (MacArthur Foundation, http://www.macbrain.org/resources.htm). are observed at times when you would do well to learn more about your surroundings and disgusted expressions are observed at times insular cortex. Neuroimaging, as well as depth electrode recording studies, show that human insular cortex responds to disgusted faces9,10, 22 tion pressure that may have shaped fearful and disgusted expressions. an to nd be ow ild ay een are the do ey In ns nd ne s of of the of ual on, gh a b Disgust Lowered brow Narrowed eyes Narrowed nostrils Closed mouth Fear Raised brow Widened eyes Flared nostrils Open mouth Figure 1 Fearful versus disgusted expressions. Note how the various parts of the face move in opposite directions in the two expressions, and therefore have opposite effects on sensory intake. Facial images from the NimStim set of facial expressions (MacArthur Foundation, http://www.macbrain.org/resources.htm). are observed at times when you would do well to learn more about your surroundings and disgusted expressions are observed at times insular cortex. Neuroimaging, as well as depth electrode recording studies, show that human insular cortex responds to disgusted faces9,10, 23 b 60° 30° 150° 180° –6 –4 –2 0° 330° 210° Disgust Fear 0 240° 270° 300° c d 1.5 1.0 0.5 0 –0.5 –1.0 –1.5 0. Eye aperture 120° 90° Magnitude estimation ± s.e.m. a 0. –0. –0. –0. Figure 3 Subjective visual-field changes for participants posing fear and disgust ex (a) Changes in visual field estimation along horizontal, vertical and oblique axes. Ce neutral baseline. Unit markings are in 9.51 of visual angle. (b) Change in estimated (in standardized units) for fear and disgust expressions relative to neutral expressio visual-field location. (c) Average eye opening from participants posing disgust, neut expressions (from top to bottom row). (d) Correlation of vertical eye-size measurem posing disgust and fear expressions with upperSusskind et al., Nat Neurosci 2008 from visual-field magnitude change 24 tureneuroscience a b 0.4 0.7 Disgust 0.2 0 –0.2 1, 00 0 1, 50 0 2, 00 0 2, 50 0 3, 00 0 3, 50 0 4, 00 0 50 0 50 –0.4 Volume minus neutral ± s.e.m. Air velocity minus neutral Fear 0.5 a t f Fear Disgust 0.3 w r b a i D i r c 0 e f n ( 0.1 –0.1 –0.3 –0.5 Time (ms) Figure 5 Measurement of nasal inspiratory capacity during expressions of disgust and fear. (a,b) Mean air-flow velocity (in standardized units) for fear and disgust expressions relative to neutral during inhalation over time (2.2-s inhalation; a) and mean volume relative to abdominal-thoracic respiratory effort (in standardized units) for disgust and fear expressions relative to 25 William James (1882): "What is an emotion?" --perception of our emotional response --pattern of bodily response discriminates emotions “If we fancy some strong emotion, and then try to abstract from our consciousness of it all the feelings of its characteristic bodily symptoms, we find we have nothing left behind, no “mind-stuff” out of which emotion can be constituted, and that a cold and neutral state of intellectual perception is all that remains.” 26 Stages of emotion processing 1. perception of a stimulus 2. induction of emotion 3. expression of emotional response and modulation of cognition 4. conscious experience of the emotion (feeling) 27 28 Psychophysiology Galvanic Skin Conductance (GSR, SCR) Electrocardiogram (EKG) Facial Electromyogram (facial EMG) Pupillometry, Respiration, Skin temperature, blood pressure 29 Figure 10.28a 30 Summary so far: Emotion -can be elicited by both simple (labelled line) and complex (appraisal) stimuli -depends on context -is partly innate/universal and partly acquired/ individual differences -involves somatic and autonomic components -ranges from modulating sensory perception (amount of information taken in) to modulating our behavior towards other people (social emotions) 31 Brain regions involved in emotion Hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray matter "Limbic system": --cingulate cortex --amygdala Insula Orbitofrontal Cortex 32 Sensory Cortices Amygdala OFC Emotion Perception Association Induction Hypothalamus PAG Insula Cingulate Emotional Response Feeling Awareness 33 A key aggression relay in the mouse Walter Hess Lin et al., Nature (2011) 23 Figure 4 Fiber Optic Cable Cannula a b EYF Fos Niss g EYF LacZ Niss “sham rage” f LacZ 34 35 Putative functions of some brain structures Amygdala: --fear, arousal, saliency Insula: --disgust, empathy, pain OFC: --valence,decisions, social emotions, moral judgment Cingulate cortex: --pain, motivation ("akinetic mutism") 36 37 Orbitofrontal Cortex -emotional and social behavior -represents reward value of stimuli -involved in complex decision-making 38 39 The equilibrium or balance, so to speak, between his (Gage’s) intellectual faculties and animal propensities seems to have been destroyed. He is fitful, irreverent, indulging at times in the grossest profanity … impatient of restraint or advice when it conflicts with his desires. John Harlow, 1868 40 41 42 43 Amygdala 44 1. The Amygdala’s role in implicit emotional memory (like fear conditioning) is doubly dissociable with the role of the hippocampus in declarative memory. 2. The amygdala is important for learning the value of stimuli, and for regulating social behavior, especially for fear or withdrawal-related behaviors. 3. The amygdala modulates much other cognition. 4. The amygdala shows individual differences and contributes to psychiatric illnesses such as mood disorders. 45 46 L. Pessoa / Neuropsychologia 48 (2010) 3416–3429 active fear responses A cholinergic basal forebrain B cortic l arousal rtica co amygdala typ CeM amygdala brainstem centers freezing brainstem freezing passive fear responses D Fig. 6. Ascending and descending projections of the central nucleus. The central nucleus influences information processing throughout cortex, an effect that is mediated via the basal forebrain. At the same time, descending projections via the hypothalamus and other brainstem sites leads to the mobilization of bodily resources. Both ascending and descending systems are suggested to contribute to Fig. 7. Attentional blink paradigm. (A) Participants were asked to report on t stimulus (T1) and on whether the stream contained a house, a building, or n cholinergicor buildings were paired with mild electrical stimulation du cholin (T2). Houses basal forebrain initial learning phase. During the main experimental phase, only trials in no stimulation? was administered were analyzed. (B) It was hypothesized t link between responses evoked in the IL-PFC and behavior (i.e., detection amygdala was mediated via specific regions of visual cortex – in this case, the parahipp pal gyrus given its involvement in the processing of scenes and spatial lay was further anticipated that this relationship would be observed in terms o BLA responses (across participants; shown schematically in red and blue), but CeM CeM 47 CeL terms of moment-to-moment fluctuations in evoked brain responses and b C 48 Heinrich Kluver “Kluver-Bucy Syndrome” 49 50 --tameness --oral tendencies --hypersexual --hypermetamorphosis --psychic blindness --altered taste preferences 51 Amygdala Lesions in Rats 52 Choi & Kim, PNAS (2010) 53 54 The brain of patient S.M. 55 Measuring the Experience of Fear 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Standardized Questionnaires Express fear to instruction Fear to films Fear in real life: autobiographical Fear in real life: pet store Feinstein et al., Current Biology (2011) 56 Experience sampling with PDA --3 months --624 samples --0 reports of afraid/scared/frightened Emotional films --no endorsement of fear Autobiography --no fear since age 10 57 58 Summary Emotions are a ubiquitous and salient aspect of our conscious experience Fear has been mechanistically dissected in great neurobiological detail, and is an excellent model system The amygdala is necessary not only for fear behaviors in rodents, but also for fear experience in humans Fear is not in the amygdala, but generated by all the multiple processes orchestrated by the amygdala 59 ...
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