Lecture-08-2011-Bi-CNS150

Lecture-08-2011-Bi-CNS150 - Bi/CNS 150 Lecture 8 Monday...

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1 Bi/CNS 150 Lecture 8 Monday October 12, 2011 Revised 10/12/2001 Learning & Memory 1. Synaptic plasticity Henry Lester Chapter 63 (from p 1258)
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From The Organization of Behavior by Donald Hebb, 1949: “When an axon of cell A is near enough to excite cell B and repeatedly or persistently takes part in firing it, some growth process or metabolic change takes place in one or both cells such that A's efficiency, as one of the cells firing B, is increased.” Hebb postulated that this behavior of synapses in neuronal networks would permit the networks to store memories. A Hebbian synapse is a “coincidence detector” NMDA receptors, back-propagating action potentials, and summation of epsp’s appear to be the components that confer “Hebbian” behavior on the synapse. The Hebbian Synapse
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3 Many synapses occur on spines, which form on dendritic shafts. Spines are plastic. Reconstruction of dendritic spines from serial EM pictures in hippocampus Atlas of Ultrastructural Neurocytology, http://synapse-web.org/atlas/contents.stm
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Electron micrograph of hippocampal synapse “Map” of micrograph to the left 4 400 nm
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5 A postsynaptic density, with a cartoon of important proteins NMDA receptor AMPA receptor CaMKII
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Mechanism of Activation of CaMKII, and “Autophosphorylation” Autophosphorylation of CaMKII can prolong its activation by calcium. CaMKII is activated by the calcium-binding protein calmodulin 7 “Ca 2+/ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase”
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Control of Synaptic Plasticity by NMDA Receptors I. The central role of Ca 2+ in initiation of long-term plastic changes A. The “Ca 2+ hypothesis” for control of synaptic plasticity B. Measurement of cytosolic Ca 2+ with fluorescent dyes. C. Control of postsynaptic Ca 2+ by “spike timing” II. Structure and behavior of the NMDA receptor A. Subunit composition B. Gating (“coincidence detection”) C. Ion selectivity (Na + , K + , Ca 2+ ) D. Kinetics, NMDA receptors are slower than AMPA receptors E. Pharmacology F. The NMDA receptor is also a “scaffold.” III. The postsynaptic density A.
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