06_LectureOutline

06_LectureOutline - An Introduction to the Skeletal System...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
An Introduction to the Skeletal System Skeletal system includes Bones of the skeleton Cartilages, ligaments, and connective tissues Functions of the Skeletal System Support Storage of minerals (calcium) Storage of lipids (yellow marrow) Blood cell production (red marrow) Protection Leverage (force of motion) Classification of Bones Bones are classified by Shape Internal tissue organization Bone markings (surface features; marks) Bone Shapes Long bones Are long and thin Are found in arms, legs, hands, feet, fingers, and toes Flat bones Are thin with parallel surfaces Are found in the skull, sternum, ribs, and scapulae Sutural bones Are small, irregular bones Are found between the flat bones of the skull Irregular bones Have complex shapes Examples: spinal vertebrae, pelvic bones Short bones Are small and thick Examples: ankle and wrist bones Sesamoid bones Are small and flat Develop inside tendons near joints of knees, hands, and feet
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Bone Markings Depressions or grooves Along bone surface Projections Where tendons and ligaments attach At articulations with other bones Tunnels Where blood and nerves enter bone Structure of a Long Bone Diaphysis The shaft A heavy wall of compact bone, or dense bone A central space called medullary (marrow) cavity Epiphysis Wide part at each end Articulation with other bones Mostly spongy (cancellous) bone Covered with compact bone (cortex) Metaphysis Where diaphysis and epiphysis meet Structure of a Flat Bone The parietal bone of the skull Resembles a sandwich of spongy bone Between two layers of compact bone Within the cranium, the layer of spongy bone between the compact bone is called the diploë Bone (Osseous) Tissue Dense, supportive connective tissue Contains specialized cells Produces solid matrix of calcium salt deposits Around collagen fibers Characteristics of Bone Tissue Dense matrix , containing Deposits of calcium salts Osteocytes (bone cells) within lacunae organized around blood vessels Canaliculi Form pathways for blood vessels Exchange nutrients and wastes Periosteum
Background image of page 2
Covers outer surfaces of bones Consists of outer fibrous and inner cellular layers Matrix Minerals Two thirds of bone matrix is calcium phosphate , Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 Reacts with calcium hydroxide , Ca(OH) 2 To form crystals of hydroxyapatite , Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 Which incorporates other calcium salts and ions Matrix Proteins One third of bone matrix is protein fibers ( collagen ) The Cells of Bone Make up only 2% of bone mass Bone contains four types of cells Osteocytes Osteoblasts Osteoprogenitor cells Osteoclasts Osteocytes Mature bone cells that maintain the bone matrix
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 12/29/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 24011 taught by Professor Pan during the Fall '11 term at HCCS.

Page1 / 10

06_LectureOutline - An Introduction to the Skeletal System...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online