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14_LectureOutline - An Introduction to the Brain and Cranial Nerves The Adult Human Brain Ranges from 750 cc to 2100 cc Contains almost 97 of the

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Unformatted text preview: An Introduction to the Brain and Cranial Nerves The Adult Human Brain Ranges from 750 cc to 2100 cc * Contains almost 97% of the body’s neural tissue * Average weight about 1.4 kg (3 lb) The Brain Six Regions of the Brain Cerebrum * Cerebellum * Diencephalon * Mesencephalon * Pons * Medulla oblongata * Cerebrum Largest part of brain * Controls higher mental functions * Divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres * Surface layer of gray matter ( neural cortex ) *Neural cortex *Also called cerebral cortex *Folded surface increases surface area *Elevated ridges ( gyri ) *Shallow depressions ( sulci ) *Deep grooves ( fissures ) Second largest part of brain * Coordinates repetitive body movements * Two hemispheres * Covered with cerebellar cortex * Diencephalon *Located under cerebrum and cerebellum *Links cerebrum with brain stem * Three divisions *Left thalamus *Right thalamus *Hypothalamus *Thalamus *Relays and processes sensory information *Hypothalamus *Hormone production *Emotion *Autonomic function *Pituitary gland *Major endocrine gland *Connected to hypothalamus *Via infundibulum (stalk) *Interfaces nervous and endocrine systems * The Brain Stem *Processes information between *Spinal cord and cerebrum or cerebellum *Includes *Mesencephalon *Pons *Medulla oblongata * Mesencephalon *Also called midbrain Processes sight, sound, and associated reflexes *Maintains consciousness * Pons Connects cerebellum to brain stem *Is involved in somatic and visceral motor control * Medulla oblongata Connects brain to spinal cord *Relays information *Regulates autonomic functions: –heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion Embryological Development Determines organization of brain structures * Neural tube Origin of brain *Enlarges into three primary brain vesicles *prosencephalon *mesencephalon *rhombencephalon * Five Secondary Brain Vesicles *Telencephalon *Diencephalon *Mesencephalon *Metencephalon *Myelencephalon * Origins of Brain Structures * Diencephalon and mesencephalon persist * Telencephalon: *Becomes cerebrum * Metencephalon *Forms cerebellum and pons * Myelencephalon *Becomes medulla oblongata * Ventricles of the Brain *Origins of ventricles *Neural tube encloses neurocoel *Neurocoel expands to form chambers ( ventricles ) lined with ependymal cells *Each cerebral hemisphere contains one large lateral ventricle *Separated by a thin medial partition ( septum pellucidum ) * Third ventricle Ventricle of the diencephalon *Lateral ventricles communicate with third ventricle: *via interventricular foramen (foramen of Monro) * Fourth ventricle Extends into medulla oblongata *Becomes continuous with central canal of the spinal cord *Connects with third ventricle : –via narrow canal in mesencephalon * aqueduct of midbrain *The brain is a large, delicate mass of neural tissue containing internal passageways and chambers filled with cerebrospinal fluid *Each of the six major brain regions has specific functions...
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This note was uploaded on 12/29/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 24011 taught by Professor Pan during the Fall '11 term at HCCS.

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14_LectureOutline - An Introduction to the Brain and Cranial Nerves The Adult Human Brain Ranges from 750 cc to 2100 cc Contains almost 97 of the

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