20_LectureOutline

20_LectureOutline - Introduction to Cardiovascular System...

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Introduction to Cardiovascular System The Pulmonary Circuit Carries blood to and from gas exchange surfaces of lungs The Systemic Circuit Carries blood to and from the body Blood alternates between pulmonary circuit and systemic circuit Three Types of Blood Vessels Arteries Carry blood away from heart Veins Carry blood to heart Capillaries Networks between arteries and veins Capillaries Also called exchange vessels Exchange materials between blood and tissues Materials include dissolved gases, nutrients, wastes Four Chambers of the Heart Right atrium Collects blood from systemic circuit Right ventricle Pumps blood to pulmonary circuit Left atrium Collects blood from pulmonary circuit Left ventricle Pumps blood to systemic circuit Anatomy of the Heart Great veins and arteries at the base Pointed tip is apex Surrounded by pericardial sac Sits between two pleural cavities in the mediastinum The Pericardium Double lining of the pericardial cavity Parietal pericardium
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Outer layer Forms inner layer of pericardial sac Visceral pericardium Inner layer of pericardium Pericardial cavity Is between parietal and visceral layers Contains pericardial fluid Pericardial sac Fibrous tissue Surrounds and stabilizes heart Superficial Anatomy of the Heart Atria Thin-walled Expandable outer auricle (atrial appendage) Sulci Coronary sulcus: divides atria and ventricles Anterior interventricular sulcus and posterior interventricular sulcus : separate left and right ventricles contain blood vessels of cardiac muscle The Heart Wall Epicardium (outer layer) Visceral pericardium Covers the heart Myocardium (middle layer) Muscular wall of the heart Concentric layers of cardiac muscle tissue Atrial myocardium wraps around great vessels Two divisions of ventricular myocardium Endocardium (inner layer) Simple squamous epithelium Cardiac Muscle Tissue Intercalated discs Interconnect cardiac muscle cells Secured by desmosomes Linked by gap junctions Convey force of contraction Propagate action potentials Characteristics of Cardiac Muscle Cells Small size Single, central nucleus Branching interconnections between cells Intercalated discs
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Internal Anatomy and Organization Interatrial septum : separates atria Interventricular septum : separates ventricles Atrioventricular (AV) valves Connect right atrium to right ventricle and left atrium to left ventricle The fibrous flaps that form bicuspid (2) and tricuspid (3) valves Permit blood flow in one direction: atria to ventricles The Right Atrium Superior vena cava Receives blood from head, neck, upper limbs, and chest Inferior vena cava Receives blood from trunk, viscera, and lower limbs Coronary sinus
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20_LectureOutline - Introduction to Cardiovascular System...

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