23_LectureOutline

23_LectureOutline - Introduction to the Respiratory System...

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Introduction to the Respiratory System The Respiratory System Cells produce energy For maintenance, growth, defense, and division Through mechanisms that use oxygen and produce carbon dioxide Oxygen Is obtained from the air by diffusion across delicate exchange surfaces of lungs Is carried to cells by the cardiovascular system, which also returns carbon dioxide to the lungs Components of the Respiratory System Five Functions of the Respiratory System Provides extensive gas exchange surface area between air and circulating blood Moves air to and from exchange surfaces of lungs Protects respiratory surfaces from outside environment Produces sounds Participates in olfactory sense Organization of the Respiratory System The respiratory system is divided into Upper respiratory system : above the larynx Lower respiratory system: below the larynx The Respiratory Tract Consists of a conducting portion From nasal cavity to terminal bronchioles Consists of a respiratory portion The respiratory bronchioles and alveoli Alveoli Are air-filled pockets within the lungs Where all gas exchange takes place The Respiratory Epithelium For gases to exchange efficiently
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Alveoli walls must be very thin (<1 µ m) Surface area must be very great (about 35 times the surface area of the body) The Respiratory Mucosa Consists of An epithelial layer An areolar layer called the lamina propria Lines the conducting portion of respiratory system The Lamina Propria Underlying layer of areolar tissue that supports the respiratory epithelium In the upper respiratory system, trachea, and bronchi It contains mucous glands that secrete onto epithelial surface In the conducting portion of lower respiratory system It contains smooth muscle cells that encircle lumen of bronchioles Structure of Respiratory Epithelium Changes along respiratory tract Alveolar Epithelium Is a very delicate, simple squamous epithelium Contains scattered and specialized cells Lines exchange surfaces of alveoli The Respiratory Defense System Consists of a series of filtration mechanisms Removes particles and pathogens Components of the Respiratory Defense System Mucous cells and mucous glands Produce mucus that bathes exposed surfaces Cilia Sweep debris trapped in mucus toward the pharynx ( mucus escalator ) Filtration in nasal cavity removes large particles Alveolar macrophages engulf small particles that reach lungs Upper Respiratory Tract The Nose Air enters the respiratory system Through nostrils or external nares Into nasal vestibule Nasal hairs
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Are in nasal vestibule Are the first particle filtration system The Nasal Cavity The nasal septum Divides nasal cavity into left and right Mucous secretions from paranasal sinus and tears Clean and moisten the nasal cavity
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This note was uploaded on 12/29/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 24011 taught by Professor Pan during the Fall '11 term at HCCS.

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23_LectureOutline - Introduction to the Respiratory System...

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