26_LectureOutline

26_LectureOutline - Introduction to the Urinary System...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to the Urinary System Three Functions of the Urinary System 1. Excretion: Removal of organic wastes from body fluids 2. Elimination: Discharge of waste products 3. Homeostatic regulation: Of blood plasma volume and solute concentration Kidneys — organs that produce urine Urinary tract — organs that eliminate urine Ureters (paired tubes) Urinary bladder (muscular sac) Urethra (exit tube) Urination or micturition — process of eliminating urine Contraction of muscular urinary bladder forces urine through urethra, and out of body Five Homeostatic Functions of Urinary System 1. Regulates blood volume and blood pressure: By adjusting volume of water lost in urine Releasing erythropoietin and renin 2. Regulates plasma ion concentrations: Sodium, potassium, and chloride ions (by controlling quantities lost in urine) Calcium ion levels (through synthesis of calcitriol) 3. Helps stabilize blood pH: By controlling loss of hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions in urine 4. Conserves valuable nutrients: By preventing excretion while excreting organic waste products 5. Assists liver in detoxifying poisons The Kidneys Are located on either side of vertebral column Left kidney lies superior to right kidney Superior surface capped by suprarenal (adrenal) gland Position is maintained by Overlying peritoneum Contact with adjacent visceral organs Supporting connective tissues Each kidney is protected and stabilized by Fibrous capsule A layer of collagen fibers Covers outer surface of entire organ Perinephric fat capsule A thick layer of adipose tissue Surrounds renal capsule Renal fascia A dense, fibrous outer layer Anchors kidney to surrounding structures Typical Adult Kidney Is about 10 cm long, 5.5 cm wide, and 3 cm thick (4 in. x 2.2 in. x 1.2 in.) Weighs about 150 g (5.25 oz) Hilum Point of entry for renal artery and renal nerves Point of exit for renal vein and ureter Sectional Anatomy of the Kidneys Renal sinus Internal cavity within kidney Lined by fibrous renal capsule: – bound to outer surfaces of structures in renal sinus – stabilizes positions of ureter, renal blood vessels, and nerves Renal Cortex Superficial portion of kidney in contact with renal capsule Reddish brown and granular Renal Pyramids 6 to 18 distinct conical or triangular structures in renal medulla Base abuts cortex Tip ( renal papilla ) projects into renal sinus Renal Columns Bands of cortical tissue separate adjacent renal pyramids Extend into medulla Have distinct granular texture Renal Lobe Consists of Renal pyramid Overlying area of renal cortex Adjacent tissues of renal columns Produces urine Renal Papilla Ducts discharge urine into minor calyx, a cup-shaped drain Major Calyx Formed by four or five minor calyces...
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This note was uploaded on 12/29/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 24011 taught by Professor Pan during the Fall '11 term at HCCS.

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26_LectureOutline - Introduction to the Urinary System...

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