Blood outline - Chapter 19 Blood I The Cardiovascular...

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Chapter 19: Blood I. The Cardiovascular System: An Introduction 1. List the components of the cardiovascular system and explain the major functions. The cardiovascular system is basically a circulating transport system. It includes a pump (the heart) a conducting system (the blood vessels) and a fluid medium (the blood). The cardiovascular system transports materials such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, waste products, hormones and immune system components to and from the cells. II. The Nature of Blood 1. Describe the important components and major functions of blood 2. Identify body sites used for blood collection and list the basic physical characteristics of the blood samples drawn from these locations. Blood is a specialized fluid connective tissue that contains cells suspended in a fluid matrix. Blood has 5 basic functions; 1. The transport of dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones and metabolic wastes. 2. The regulation of the pH and ion composition of interstitial fluids. 3. The restriction of fluid losses at injury sites. 4. Defense against toxins and pathogens. 5. The stabilization of body temperature. Whole blood is composed of 2 basic subunits: 1. plasma , which is the fluid part 2. formed elements , which include all the cells and solid parts Plasma contains water, dissolved plasma proteins and other solutes. It is similar to, and exchanges fluids with, interstitial fluid. There are 3 types of formed elements suspended in the plasma: 1. red blood cells (RBCs or erythrocytes ) transport oxygen 2. white blood cells (WBCs or leukocytes ) are part of the immune system 3. platelets are cell fragments involved in clotting Formed elements are produced by myeloid and lymphoid stem cells in the process of hemopoiesis . Whole blood is separated or fractionated into plasma and formed elements for clinical analysis. Blood has 3 general physical characteristics: 1. A normal temperature of 38 degrees C (100.4 degrees F) 2. A high viscosity 3. A slightly alkaline pH (7.35 - 7.45) An individual’s blood volume (in liters) is about 7% of their body weight in ki lograms. An adult male has about 5 - 6 liters of blood. III. Plasma 1. Specify the composition and functions of plasma. Plasma makes up about 50 to 60 percent of blood volume, and more than 90 percent of plasma is water. Like interstitial fluid, plasma is an extracellular fluid. Water, ions, and small solutes are continually exchanged between the plasma and interstitial fluid across the walls of capillaries. The differences between plasma and interstitial fluids are:
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1. different levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide 2. different amounts and types of dissolved proteins (plasma proteins do not pass through capillary walls) There are 3 main classes of plasma proteins: 1. albumins (60%) 2. globulins (35%) 3. fibrinogen (4%) Albumins transport substances such as fatty acids, thyroid hormones and steroid hormones.
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