Bone Outline - Chapter 6 Osseous Tissue and Bone Structure...

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Chapter 6: Osseous Tissue and Bone Structure I. An Introduction to the Skeletal System, p. 180 The skeletal system includes: - bones of the skeleton - cartilages, ligaments and other stabilizing connective tissues The 5 primary functions of the skeletal system are: 1. Support 2. Storage of minerals (calcium) and lipids (yellow marrow ) 3. Blood cell production (red marrow ) 4. Protection 5. Leverage (force of motion) II. The Gross Anatomy of Bones, p. 180 The 6 major bone shapes are: 1. Long bones: are long and thin. They are found in arms, legs, hands, feet, fingers and toes. 2. Flat bones: are thin with parallel surfaces. They are found in the skull, sternum, ribs and scapula. 3. Sutural bones: are small, irregular bones between the flat bones of the skull. 4. Irregular bones: are complex shapes such as spinal vertebrae and pelvic bones. 5. Short bones: are small and thick, including ankle and wrist bones. 6. Sesamoid bones: are small, flat bones that develop inside tendons near joints of knees, hands and feet. Bone Structure, p. 183 The femur is a long bone. The long shaft is the diaphysis . The wide part at each end, where the femur articulates with other bones, is the epiphysis . The area where the two connect is the metaphysis . The heavy wall of the diaphysis is made of compact or dense bone . Inside is a central space called the marrow cavity . The epiphysis is made mostly of spongy (cancellous ) bone with an open network structure, covered with a thin layer of compact bone called the cortex . The parietal bone of the skull is a flat bone, consisting of a sandwich of spongy bone (diploe) between 2 layers of compact bone. III. Bone Histology, p. 184 Osseous tissue is dense, supportive connective tissue containing specialized cells. The matrix of bone tissue is solid because of the calcium salts deposited around protein fibers in its ground substance. The 4 characteristics of bone tissue are: 1. Dense matrix containing deposits of calcium salts 2. The matrix contains bone cells within lacunae , which are organized around blood vessels. 3. Canaliculi form pathways for blood vessels to exchange nutrients and wastes. 4. Outer surfaces of bones are covered by periosteum consisting of outer fibrous and inner cellular layers.
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The Matrix of Bone, p. 184 Two-thirds of bone matrix is made of calcium phosphate which reacts with calcium hydroxide to form crystals of hydroxyapatite which incorporates other calcium salts and ions as it crystallizes. About 1/3 of bone is protein fibers (collagen ). Bone cells are only about 2% of bone mass. The Cells of Bone, p. 184 Bone contains 4 types of cells: 1. osteocytes 2. osteoblasts 3. osteoprogenitor cells 4. osteoclasts Osteocytes are mature bone cells that maintain the bone matrix. Each osteocyte lives in a lacuna
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Bone Outline - Chapter 6 Osseous Tissue and Bone Structure...

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