Joint Outline

Joint Outline - Chapter 9: Articulations The body is...

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Chapter 9: Articulations The body is adapted to movement, which occurs only at joints where 2 bones connect (articulations ). Joints have different structures that determine the direction and distance they can move. Joints always compromise strength to increase mobility. I. The Classification of Joints, p. 259 The distance and direction a joint can move is called range of motion . Joints can move a little (amphiarthrosis ), a lot (diarthrosis ) or not at all (synarthrosis ). Functional classification Joints can be divided into functional groups: - Synarthroses , or immovable joints , are bound together by fibrous or cartilaginous connections, which may fuse over time. - Amphiarthroses , or slightly moveable joints , may have fibrous or cartilaginous connections. - Diarthroses , or synovial joint s, are freely moveable , and are subdivided by type of motion. Structural Classification Joints can also be classified by structure: - bony - fibrous - cartilaginous - synovial Synarthroses (Immovable Joints), p. 260 Synarthroses are very strong. At a synarthrosis, the edges of the bones may touch or interlock. The 4 types of synarthrotic joints are: 1. suture : - bones are interlocked and bound by dense fibrous connective tissue - found only in the skull 2. gomphosis : - a fibrous connection ( periodontal ligament ) - binds teeth to sockets 3. synchondrosis : - a rigid cartilaginous bridge between 2 bones - e.g. the epiphyseal cartilage of long bones - e.g. the connection between vertebrosternal ribs and the sternum 4. synostosis : - fused bones, immovable - e.g. the metopic suture of the skull - e.g. epiphyseal lines of long bones Amphiarthroses (Slightly Moveable Joints), p. 260 An amphiarthrosis is more moveable than a synarthrosis, and stronger than a freely movable joint. The 2 major types of amphiarthrotic joints are: 1. syndesmosis : bones connected by ligaments 2. symphysis : bones separated by fibrocartilage
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Diarthroses (Moveable Joints), p. 260 Diarthroses (synovial joints ) are found at the ends of long bones, within articular capsules lined with synovial membrane. The articulating surfaces of the bones within the articular capsules are padded with articular cartilages , which prevent the bones from touching. The smooth surfaces are lubricated by synovial fluid to reduce friction. Synovial fluid
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This note was uploaded on 12/29/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 24011 taught by Professor Pan during the Fall '11 term at HCCS.

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Joint Outline - Chapter 9: Articulations The body is...

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