Nervous Outline

Nervous Outline - Chapter 12: Neural Tissue I. An Overview...

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Chapter 12: Neural Tissue I. An Overview of the Nervous System, p. 380 The nervous system includes all the neural tissue in the body. Neural tissue contains 2 kinds of cells: 1. neurons : the cells that send and receive signals 2. neuroglia (glial cells): the cells that support and protect the neurons The organs of the nervous system include: - the brain - the spinal cord - sensory receptors of sense organs (eye, ears, etc.) - the nerves that connect the nervous system with other systems The nervous system has 2 major anatomical divisions: 1. the central nervous system (CNS ) 2. the peripheral nervous system (PNS ) The Anatomical Divisions of the Nervous System, p. 380 The central nervous system (CNS ) consists of the spinal cord and brain , which contain neural tissue, connective tissues and blood vessels. The CNS is responsible for processing and coordinating: 1. sensory data from inside and outside the body. 2. motor commands that control activities of peripheral organs such as the skeletal muscles. 3. higher functions of the brain such as intelligence, memory, learning and emotion. The peripheral nervous system (PNS ) includes all neural tissue outside the CNS . The PNS is responsible for: 1. delivering sensory information to the CNS 2. carrying motor command to peripheral tissues and systems Sensory information and motor commands in the PNS are carried by bundles of axons (with their associated connective tissues and blood vessels) called peripheral nerves (nerves ): 1. cranial nerves are connected to the brain 2. spinal nerves are attached to the spinal cord The Functional Divisions of the Nervous System, p. 380 The PNS is separated into 2 divisions: 1. the afferent division , which carries sensory information from sensory receptors of the PNS to the CNS . Receptors include neurons or specialized cells that detect changes or respond to stimuli, and complex sensory organs such as the eyes and ears. 2. the efferent division , which carries motor commands from the CNS to muscles and glands of the PNS . The cells or organs that respond to efferent signals by doing something are called effectors . The efferent division is divided into 2 parts: 1. the somatic nervous system (SNS ), which controls skeletal muscle contractions a. voluntary muscle contractions b. involuntary muscle contractions (reflexes) 2. the autonomic nervous system (ANS ), which controls subconscious actions such as contractions of smooth muscle and cardiac muscle, and glandular secretions. The ANS is separated into 2 divisions: 1. the sympathetic division , which has a stimulating effect 2. the parasympathetic division , which has a relaxing effect
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Neurons are the basic functional units of the nervous system. II. Neurons, p. 380
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Nervous Outline - Chapter 12: Neural Tissue I. An Overview...

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