Ch12NotesSum11

Ch12NotesSum11 - Ch. 12 Neural Tissue An overview of the...

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1 Ch. 12 – Neural Tissue An overview of the nervous system • The nervous system (which is one of the two organ systems that function to control or adjust the activities of many other systems simultaneously) provides swift and brief responses to stimuli – Compare this to the endocrine system (the body’s other major controlling organ system) , which adjusts metabolic operations and directs slower and more long-term changes • The nervous system includes all of the neural tissue of the body: – It is mostly made up of supporting cells called neuroglia (or glial cells ) – The basic functional cells of the nervous system are neurons (we learned about these in BIOL& 251)
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2 The organization of the nervous system •I . CNS (Central Nervous System) = the brain and spinal cord; it functions to integrate, process, and coordinate sensory data and motor commands; the brain also provides higher functions such as intelligence, memory, learning, and emotion •I I . PNS (Peripheral Nervous System) = neural tissue (mostly spinal nerves and cranial nerves) that is located outside the CNS –A . Afferent division : brings sensory information from receptors to the CNS –B . Efferent division : carries motor commands from the CNS to effectors •1 . Somatic NS (Ch. 15): mostly voluntary control of skeletal muscle •2 . Autonomic NS (visceral motor system) (Ch. 16): involuntary control of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands, and adipose
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3 Fig. 12-1a, p. 388 Axoplasmic transport • 1. “Slow stream” transport: – Is caused by the production of new cytoplasm at the cell body which then flows down the axon (where it is called axoplasm) – Moves axoplasm 1-5 mm per DAY • 2. “Fast stream” transport: – Is the movement of organelles and vesicles that contain neurotransmitters and certain enzymes along the axon – Moves materials 5-10 mm per HOUR – The mechanism: “molecular motors” move on “tracks” • The motors = proteins called kinesin and dynein (both use ATP) • The tracks = neurotubules (= microtubules) – Directionality: Anterograde = the movement of neurotransmitters and organelles away from the cell body (performed by kinesin) Retrograde = the movement of metabolites and other chemicals toward the cell body (performed by dynein) – So the presence of chemicals at the synapse may affect gene activity – Also, the rabies virus, herpes virus, and tetanus toxin are carried this way! Fig. 12-3, p. 391 Neuron classification – by structure Is based on the number and type of processes attached to the cell body
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4 Fig. 12-3, p. 391 Neuron classification – by structure Anaxonic neurons the axon and dendrites cannot be differentiated anatomically – They are found in the brain and special sense organs Bipolar neurons have two distinct processes – They are relatively rare – They are found in the eye, ear, and nose
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This note was uploaded on 12/29/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 24011 taught by Professor Pan during the Fall '11 term at HCCS.

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Ch12NotesSum11 - Ch. 12 Neural Tissue An overview of the...

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