Ch28NotesSum11

Ch28NotesSum11 - Ch. 28 The Reproductive Systems Are the...

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1 Ch. 28 – The Reproductive Systems • Are the only systems that are NOT essential to the life of the individual organism… – But they are essential to the perpetuation of the human species! Fig. 28-1, p. 1043 The male reproductive system (midsagittal view)
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2 Fig. 28-3, p. 1045 The male reproductive system (anterior view) The spermatic cord • Connects the abdominopelvic cavity to the testes (in the scrotum) via the… Inguinal canal = a passageway through the abdominopelvic musculature • Is made up of fascia, muscle, the ductus (vas) deferens, blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels Pampiniform plexus = a network of testicular veins that surrounds the arteries to slightly cool incoming blood Fig. 28-1, p. 1043 Fig. 28-3, p. 1045
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3 The scrotum • Supports and protects the testes • = 2 chambers surrounded by CT and muscle: –1 . Dartos muscle (smooth muscle) – more superficial; it wrinkles the skin of the scrotum –2 . Cremaster muscle (skeletal muscle) – deeper; it raises and lowers the testes in response to ambient temperature or sexual arousal • Testicular temperature must be kept ~ 1 ° C < body temperature for normal sperm development Fig. 28-3, p. 1045 Fig. 28-4, p. 1046 Fig. 28-3, p. 1045 Fig. 28-4, p. 1046 The testes = the male gonads (singular = testis) •A r e mixed glands: – Exocrine – they produce sperm – Endocrine – they produce male sex hormones (= androgens) Develop in the embryonic abdomen near the kidneys and descend through the inguinal canal (at about the 7 th prenatal month) Have 2 outer “coats” : –1 . Tunica vaginalis = a relatively superficial, double-walled serous membrane –2 . Tunica albuginea = deeper, white fibrous CT • It forms
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4 Fig. 28-4, p. 1034 Seminiferous tubules (a lower-power view) Fig. 28-5a, p. 1047 Seminiferous tubules (a higher-power view) Processes that occur here : Spermatogenesis (= sperm production): • 1. Mitosis • 2. Meiosis •3 . Spermiogenesis (= spermatids spermatozoa) Spermiation (= the release of sperm
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5 Fig. 28-5, p. 1047 Cells of the testes Within the seminiferous tubules: Spermatogenic cells : • Spermatogonia (germ cells) – (Germ cells are reproductive stem cells that contribute to gamete production) • Primary spermatocytes • Secondary spermatocytes • Spermatids • Spermatozoa (sperm) Nurse (sustentacular or Sertoli) cells – support and help regulate the development of sperm Between the seminiferous tubules: Interstitial cells (cells of Leydig) – secrete androgens Mitosis and meiosis – some key terms Diploid number (of chromosomes) = 2n – = 2 complete sets (23 pairs ) of chromosomes • I.e., a diploid cell has 2 copies of each chromosome – One (maternal) copy is provided by mom and one (paternal) copy is provided by dad – 2n = 46 in humans – Somatic (general body) cells and stem (e.g. germ) cells are diploid
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This note was uploaded on 12/29/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 24011 taught by Professor Pan during the Fall '11 term at HCCS.

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Ch28NotesSum11 - Ch. 28 The Reproductive Systems Are the...

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