C - vii CONTENTS FOREWORD xvii PREFACE xix SYMBOLS xxi 1...

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Unformatted text preview: vii CONTENTS FOREWORD xvii PREFACE xix SYMBOLS xxi 1 STATE OF UNSATURATED SOIL 3 1.1 Unsaturated Soil Phenomena / 3 1.1.1 Definition of Unsaturated Soil Mechanics / 3 1.1.2 Interdisciplinary Nature of Unsaturated Soil Mechanics / 4 1.1.3 Classification of Unsaturated Soil Phenomena / 6 1.2 Scope and Organization of Book / 8 1.2.1 Chapter Structure / 8 1.2.2 Geomechanics and Geo-environmental Tracks / 11 1.3 Unsaturated Soil in Nature and Practice / 12 1.3.1 Unsaturated Soil in Hydrologic Cycle / 12 1.3.2 Global Extent of Climatic Factors / 12 1.3.3 Unsaturated Zone and Soil Formation / 13 1.3.4 Unsaturated Soil in Engineering Practice / 18 1.4 Moisture, Pore Pressure, and Stress Profiles / 20 1.4.1 Stress in the Unsaturated State / 20 viii CONTENTS 1.4.2 Saturated Moisture and Stress Profiles: Conceptual Illustration / 21 1.4.3 Unsaturated Moisture and Stress Profiles: Conceptual Illustration / 22 1.4.4 Illustrative Stress Analysis / 23 1.5 State Variables, Material Variables, and Constitutive Laws / 26 1.5.1 Phenomena Prediction / 26 1.5.2 Head as a State Variable / 28 1.5.3 Effective Stress as a State Variable / 30 1.5.4 Net Normal Stresses as State Variables / 33 1.6 Suction and Potential of Soil Water / 34 1.6.1 Total Soil Suction / 34 1.6.2 Pore Water Potential / 35 1.6.3 Units of Soil Suction / 38 1.6.4 Suction Regimes and the Soil-Water Characteristic Curve / 39 Problems / 43 I FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES 45 2 MATERIAL VARIABLES 47 2.1 Physical Properties of Air and Water / 47 2.1.1 Unsaturated Soil as a Multiphase System / 47 2.1.2 Density of Dry Air / 48 2.1.3 Density of Water / 50 2.1.4 Viscosity of Air and Water / 53 2.1.5 Flow Regimes / 55 2.2 Partial Pressure and Relative Humidity / 57 2.2.1 Relative Humidity in Unsaturated Soil Mechanics / 57 2.2.2 Composition and Partial Pressure of Air / 57 2.2.3 Equilibrium between Free Water and Air / 59 2.2.4 Equilibrium between Pore Water and Air / 62 2.2.5 Relative Humidity / 63 2.2.6 Dew Point / 64 2.3 Density of Moist Air / 65 2.3.1 Effect of Water Vapor on Density of Air / 65 2.3.2 Formulation for Moist Air Density / 66 2.4 Surface Tension / 73 CONTENTS ix 2.4.1 Origin of Surface Tension / 73 2.4.2 Pressure Drop across an Air-Water Interface / 76 2.5 Cavitation of Water / 80 2.5.1 Cavitation and Boiling / 80 2.5.2 Hydrostatic Atmospheric Pressure / 82 2.5.3 Cavitation Pressure / 84 Problems / 86 3 INTERFACIAL EQUILIBRIUM 89 3.1 Solubility of Air in Water / 89 3.1.1 Henrys Law / 89 3.1.2 Temperature Dependence / 91 3.1.3 Volumetric Coefficient of Solubility / 92 3.1.4 Henrys Law Constant and Volumetric Coefficient of Solubility / 93 3.1.5 Vapor Component Correction / 94 3.1.6 Mass Coefficient of Solubility / 95 3.2 Air-Water-Solid Interface / 96 3.2.1 Equilibrium between Two Water Drops / 96 3.2.2 Equilibrium at an Air-Water-Solid Interface / 97 3.2.3 Contact Angle / 99 3.2.4 Air-Water-Solid Interface in Unsaturated Soil / 101 3.3 Vapor Pressure Lowering / 104 3.3.1 Implications of Kelvins Equation / 104...
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C - vii CONTENTS FOREWORD xvii PREFACE xix SYMBOLS xxi 1...

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