01 Notes - Oxidation States

01 Notes - Oxidation States - 1. Sodium nitrate 2. Ammonia...

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Aim: How are oxidation states assigned? QQ: None! Do Now: Painters are employed year-round to pain the cables, towers and supports on the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco. Why? Oxidation and Reduction - History Oxidation: combining oxygen with another substance. 4 Fe (s) + 3 O 2 (g) Fe 2 O 3 (s) Reduction: removal of oxygen from a substance CuO (s) + H 2 (g) Cu (s) + H 2 O (g) Current Definitions Oxidation: the loss of electrons Reduction: the gain of electrons LEO the lion says GER! Redox Reactions Involve a change in oxidation states (charges) Oxidation and reduction will always come in pairs… Determining Oxidation States KMnO 4 1. Assign oxidation states to the elements that only have one possible oxidation state. 2. Multiply the oxidation state by the subscript of the element to find the total charge contributed by that element. 3. All matter is neutral – determine the oxidation state of the remaining element. Practice: Provide the chemical formula and determine the oxidation state of each element in the compound.
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Unformatted text preview: 1. Sodium nitrate 2. Ammonia 3. Zinc oxide 4. Water 5. Calcium hydride 6. Carbon dioxide 7. Nitrogen 8. Potassium sulfate 9. Barium phosphate 10. Hydrogen peroxide 11. Oxygen difluoride 12. Methane Helpful Hints! Pure (uncombined) elements have an oxidation state of zero In covalent compounds, the more electronegative element will be assigned the negative oxidation state Hydrogen will be negative when combined with a metal, and positive when combined with a nonmetal Conclusions Redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons Oxidation is the loss of electrons Reduction is the gain of electrons Use the reference table to help assign oxidation states to elements Uncombined elements, oxidation state = 0 Hydrogen can be +/- (depends on what it is bonded to) Look at EN values for covalent compounds...
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This note was uploaded on 01/01/2012 for the course CHEM 101 taught by Professor Donahue during the Spring '11 term at Long Island U..

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01 Notes - Oxidation States - 1. Sodium nitrate 2. Ammonia...

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