Chapter3(0211)

Chapter3(0211) - Ch3/MATH0211/YMC/2009-10 1 Chapter 3....

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Unformatted text preview: Ch3/MATH0211/YMC/2009-10 1 Chapter 3. Functions 3.1. Functions and Graphs The idea of a function expresses the dependence between two quantities, one of which is given and the other is the output. A function associates a unique output with every input element. Definition 3.1 Let X , Y be sets. A function from X into Y is a rule which assigns EACH element in X to EXACTLY ONE element in Y . We call X and Y the domain and the codomain of the function respectively. If the function is denoted by f , then we may write f : X-→ Y. When the domain and codmain of a function are both sets of real numbers, the function is said to be a real-valued function of one variable , and we write f : R-→ R . From now on we shall only focus on real-valued functions of one variable (and real-valued functions of two variables in the final part of this course). Remark A variable that represents the input for a function is called an independent variable . A variable that represents the output for a function is called dependent variable because its value depends on the value of the independent variable. For example, if f ( x ) = x + 1 for any x ∈ R , and if we set y = f ( x ) , then we have the equation y = x + 1 . In this case, the independent variable is x and the dependent variable is y . Example 3.2 (Finding function values) Let f ( x ) = 2 x 2- x + 3 for any x ∈ R . Find f (3) , f ( u 2 ) and f ( x + h ) . Solution . Putting x = 3 into the defining equation for f ( x ) gives f (3) = 2 · 3 2- 3 + 3 = 18 . Putting x = u 2 gives f ( u 2 ) = 2 · ( u 2 ) 2- u 2 + 3 = 2 u 4- u 2 + 3 . Finally, replacing x by x + h gives f ( x + h ) = 2( x + h ) 2- ( x + h ) + 3 = 2( x 2 + 2 xh + h 2 )- x- h + 3 = 2 x 2 + 4 xh + 2 h 2- x- h + 3 . 2 Ch3/MATH0211/YMC/2009-10 2 Graphs of Functions A way to visualize a function is its graph. If f is a real-valued function of one variable, its graph consists of the points in the Cartesian plane R 2 whose coordinates are the input-output pairs for f . In set notation, the graph is { ( x,y ) ∈ R 2 : x ∈ R , y = f ( x ) } . Example 3.3 In the figure below, (a) shows the graph of a typical function. The graph in (b) shows a function f : [2 , ∞ ) → R with domain [2 , ∞ ) . Note that the function is undefined for x < 2 . The graph in (c) does not represent a function since there are two different outputs for each input nonzero number x . Part (c) of the above example suggests that not every figure in R 2 represent the graph of a function. The key idea is that we cannot have two points with the same x-coordinate. This leads to the following vertical line test : The vertical line test If you have a figure and you would like to know whether it is the graph of a function, see whether any vertical line intersects the figure more than once. If so, it is NOT the graph of a function. But if there is no vertical line intersects the figure more than once, then the figure is indeed the graph of a function....
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Chapter3(0211) - Ch3/MATH0211/YMC/2009-10 1 Chapter 3....

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