Skeleton-outline - Skeletal System page 1 of 9 ANAT 51210 Fall 2011 Lectures 1 2 3 4 5 Bone and the Skeletal System I Organization A Components of

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Skeletal System page 1 of 9 ANAT 51210 Lectures 1, 2, 3, 4, & 5 Fall 2011 Bone and the Skeletal System I. Organization A. Components of the skeletal system: bones + joints B. The word bone 1. Bone, the connective tissue (i.e., bony connective tissue): matrix composed of collagen fibers and hydroxyapatite ground substance a. Collagen: gives strength under tensile forces b. Hydroxyapatite: inorganic mineral substance, giving strength under compressive forces 2. Bone, the organ: composed primarily of bony connective tissue + other types of connective tissue, as well as nervous and epithelial elements II. Function of the skeletal system A. Provides structure, support, and protection B. Essential for locomotion and movement C. Site of blood cell formation (i.e., hematopoiesis) D. Storehouse for some inorganic minerals, especially calcium E. Indicator of sex, age, height, weight, racial background, and (to some extent) medical history III. Macroscopic structure of a bone A. Classification by shape 1. Long bones: longer than wide, cylindrical with a medullary cavity; main components of limbs (humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula, metacarpals, metatarsals, phalanges)
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Skeletal System page 2 of 9 2. Short bones: roughly cubical (carpals and tarsals); found where mobility is needed, but space is limited 3. Flat bones: broad surface for muscle attachment or protection of underlying organs (e.g., frontal, parietal, innominate, ribs, and scapula) 4. Irregular bones: irregular shape with numerous projections (e.g., vertebrae, some bones of the skull [e.g., sphenoid], scapula) 5. Pneumatic bones: containing sizable air spaces; only found in some bones of the skull (e.g., frontal, maxilla, sphenoid, ethmoid, temporal [mastoid process]); reduces weight of the skull, thus reducing the need for large neck muscles 6. Sesamoid bones: small round bones embedded within a tendon (e.g., patella and sesamoids of hands and feet); alter the angle of muscle attachment to increase mechanical leverage 7. Accessory bones: abnormal bone growth from existing normal bone (e.g., bone spurs) 8. Heterotopic bones: abnormal bone, formed entirely within soft tissue (e.g., some types of kidney stones, gall stones, muscle or tendon calcification) B. Classification by location 1. Axial skeleton a. Skull: 28 bones i. Neurocranium: 8 bones ii. Facial skeleton: 14 bones iii. Auditory ossicles: 6 bones b. Hyoid: 1 bone c. Vertebral Column: 26 bones i. Cervical vertebrae: 7 bones ii. Thoracic vertebrae: 12 bones
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This note was uploaded on 01/03/2012 for the course ANAT 51210 taught by Professor Manley-buser during the Fall '11 term at Palmer Chiropractic.

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Skeleton-outline - Skeletal System page 1 of 9 ANAT 51210 Fall 2011 Lectures 1 2 3 4 5 Bone and the Skeletal System I Organization A Components of

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