crito - 42 important, I could spend my time testing and...

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Unformatted text preview: 42 important, I could spend my time testing and examining people ther I do here, as to who among them is wise, and who thinks he is, but is What would one not give, gentlemen of the jury, for the opportuni examine the man who led the great expedition against Troy, or Odysse I or Sisyphus, and innumerable other men and women one could mention It would be an extraordinary happiness to talk with them, to keep comp ‘ ' with them and examine them. In any case, they would certainly not p one to death for doing so. They are happier there than we are here other respects, and for the rest of time they are deathless, if indeed W we are told is true. ‘ You too must be of good hope as regards death, gentlemen of the j and keep this one truth in mind, that a good man cannot be harmed eith in life or in death, and that his affairs are not neglected by the gods.rWh has happened to me now has not happened of itself, but it is clear tom that it was better for me to die now and to escape from trouble. Tha “ why my divine sign did not oppose me at any point. So I am certainl not angry with those who convicted me, or with my accusers. Of will that was not their purpose when they accused and convicted me, but the , thought they were hurting me, and for this they deserve blame. This much- I ask from them: when my sons grow up, avenge yourselves by causing them the same kind of grief that I caused you, if you think they care for money or anything else more than they care for virtue, or if they they are somebody when they are nobody. Reproach them as I reproach you, that they do not care for the right things and think they are worth ' when they are not worthy of anything. If you do this, I shall have been justly treated by you, and my sons also. V Now the hour to part has come. I go to die, you go to live. Which 0 us goes to the better lot is known to no one, except the god. ,e‘beginning of the Phaedo relates, Socrates did not die until a month is trial, which followed by a day the sailing of the Athenian state galley _- annual religious mission to the island of Delos; no executions were per— d during its absence. Crito comes to tell Socrates of its anticipated arrival hat day and to make one last effort to persuade him to allow his friends ve him by bribing his jailers and bundling him ofl‘ somewhere beyond the “of Athenian law. Crito indicates that most people expect his friends to do unless (dishonorably) they value their-money more than their friend. Soc— however, refuses. Even if people do expect it, to do that would be grossly st. th Crito’s arguments in favor of his plan and Socrates’ in rejecting it are her jumbled—as perhaps befits the pressure and excitement of the moment. to cites the damage to his and Socrates’ other friends’ reputations and deli- minimizes any financial loss he might suffer, in case Socrates might be ing to accept any great sacrifice from a friend. Socrates witheringly dis— s the first consideration and ignores the second. But Crito also claims 't would actually be unjust of Socrates to stay. That would allow his ene- to triumph over him and his friends, including his young sons, whom he abandon by going docilely to his death: a person ought not to take lying an attack on the things he holds most dear, including philosophy itself he philosophical life to which he and (presumably) his friends are devoted. we hear strains of the time-honored Greek idea that justice is helping friends and harming one's enemies, cited by Polemarchus in Republic I. Crito does not propose harming their enemies—only preventing them having their way.) As to his children, Socrates responds that they will be ell or better cared for after his death than if be resisted it and went into ex— ut ironically, considering his own subsequent arguments for accepting his , he seems not to hear the larger claim of injustice that Crito lodges. to’s jumbled presentation of his case facilitates this. ‘ nmoved by the claims of justice grounded in his private relationships to ends and family, Socrates appeals to the standards of civic justice imbedded his relations as a citizen to the Athenian peopleand to the Athenian system a" He claims that a citizen is necessarily, given the benefits he has enjoyed Jer'the laws of the city, their slave, justly required to do whatever they ask, more forbidden to attack them than to violate his own parents. That would taliation—rendering a wrong for the wrong received in his unjust condem— ion—and retaliation is never just. But what if he chose to depart not in an 37 43 38 Cut to l i 39 unjust spirit of retaliation but only in order to evade th ' ~ . , . e zll conse uences o ', the unjust condemnation for himself and his friends and family? A79 if recoghiz ing that loophole, Socrates also develops a celebrated early version of the social contract—a contract between the laws or the city and each citizen, not amon the QZZzens themselves—with the argument that now, after he is condemned by an enian court and has exhausted all le al a eals he must ' ' ' his implicit promise, abide ' g W I I m Jusme to tence. It is clear where Socrates stands; he is committed, as a public figure known for pleading the preeminent value of the civic virtues, to honoring them in his personal life—and death. But the dialogue itself, through Crito’s ignored ap— peal to ]uSth€ in the private sphere, invites the reader to reflect on a wider range of issues about justice than Socrates himsel addresses D‘d ' ' require that Socrates stay to accept his death? f l l JuStZ'C'e .M.C SOCRATES: What is it? Or has the ship arrived from Delos, at the arrival which I must die? CRrro: It has not arrived yet, but it will, I believe, arrive today, according a message some men brought from Sunium, where they left it. This makes obVious that it will come today, and that your life must end tomorrow. SOCRATES: May it be for the best. If it so please the gods, so be it. However, 0 not think it will arrive today. CRITO: What indication have you of this? SOCRATES: I will tell you. I must die the day after the ship arrives. CRITO: That is what those in authority say. SOCRATEs: Then I do not think it will arrive on this coming day, but on e next. I take to witness of this a dream I had a little earlier during this ght. It looks as if it was the right time for you not to wake me. CRITO: What was your dream? SOCRATES: I thought that a beautiful and comely woman dressed in white approached me. She called me and said: “Socrates, may you arrive at fertile hthia1 on the third day.” CRITO: A strange dream, Socrates. SOCRATES: But it seems clear enough to me, Crito. CRITOI Too clear it seems, my dear Socrates, but listen to me even now d be saved. If you die, it will not be a single misfortune for me. Not nly will I be deprived of a friend, the like of whom I shall never find am, but many people who do not know you or me very well will think ‘atl could have saved you if I were willing to spend money, but that I ’d not care to do so. Surely there can be no worse reputation than to be Ought to value money more highly than one’s friends, for the majority not believe that you yourself were not willing to leave prison while ,e- were eager for you to do so. OCRATES: My good Crito, why should we care so much for what the ajority think? The most reasonable people, to whom one should pay “ore attention, will believe that things were done as they were done. CRITO: You see, Socrates, that one must also pay attention to the opinion fthe majority. Your present situation makes clear that the majority can - 'ct not the least but pretty well the greatest evils if one is slandered among them. OCRATES: Would that the majority could inflict the greatest evils, for ‘ey would then be capable of the greatest good, and that would be fine, ‘ut-now they cannot do either. They cannot make a man either wise or Colish, but they inflict things haphazardly. d :— W N R S in ‘th 3 E ‘N : °§ Q at R 3 m. h h D Q at :- a % a :- CI: § SOCRAIES: Why haVe You come so earl C ' ~ ~ - , t ? () CRITO: It certain y is, y n O r ls 1t not sun eaflY- SOCRATES: How early? CRIrO: Early dawn. SOCRATES: I am surprised that the warder w ‘ ' ‘ ~ . as Willm to listen to 0 CRITO: He is quite friendly to me b now S g y , ocr t . I often and I have given him something? a es have been here SOCRATES‘ Have you just come L . , or have ou been here ' 7 CRrro: A fair time. y for some tune. SOCRA : T ‘ ‘ ‘ L in Sflencggs hen why did you not wake me right away but sit ther CRITO: By Zeus no Socrates I would not In ' ' L , . yself want to be in distress ' aland awake so long. I have been surprised to see you so peacefully asleep. L t was on purpose that I did not wake you, so that you should spend your Egreie most agrheealily. Often in the past throughout my life, I have considered . way you ve appy, and es eciall so no th t i I misfortune so easily and lightly). y W a you bear your present SOCRATEs: It would not be fittin at 5 m a i die now. g Y ge t0 resent the fact that I must ,. CRITO: Other men of your age are caught in such misfortunes, but - age does not prevent them resenting their fate. SOCRATES: That is so. Why have you come so early? CRITO: I bring bad news, Socrates, not for you, apparently, but for, me ' and all Your friends the news is bad and h d t count it among the hardest. ar 0 bear. Indeed, I would A quotation from Iliad ix.363. Achilles has rejected all the presents Agamemnon ered him to get him to return to the battle, and threatens to go home. He says his hips will sail in the morning, and with good weather he might arrive on the third day ‘ fertile Phthia” (which is his home). The dream means that Socrates’ soul, after death, find its home on the third day (counting, as usual among the Greeks, both the first Translated by G.M.A. Grube. and the last member of the series). 45 46 40 Crito CRITO: That may be.so. But tell me this, Socrates, are you anticipating that I and your other friends would have trouble with the informers if you escape from here, as having stolen you away, and that we should be compelled to lose all our property or pay heavy fines and suffer other punishment besides? If you have any such fear, forget it. We would be justified in running this risk to save you, and worse, if necessary. Do follow my advice, and do not act differently. L SOCRATES: I do have these things in mind, Crito, and also many others. CRITO: Have no such fear. It is not much money that some people require to save you and get you out of here. Further, do you not see that those informers are cheap, and that not much money would be needed to deal with them? My money is available and is, I think, sufficient. If, because of your affection for me, you feel you should not spend any of mine, there are those strangers here ready to spend money. One of them, Simrnias the Theban, has brought enough for this very purpose. Cebes, too, and a good many others. So, as I say, do not let this fear make you hesitate to save yourself, nor Iet what you said in court trouble you, that you would not know what to do with yourself if you left Athens, for you would be welcomed in many places to which you might go. If you want to go to Thessaly, I have friends there who will greatly appreciate you and keep you safe, so that no one in Thessaly will harm you. Besides, Socrates, I do not think that what you are doing is just, to give up your life when you can save it, and to hasten your fate as your enemies would hasten it, and indeed have hastened it in their wish to destroy you. Moreover, I think you are betraying your sons by going away and leaving them, when you could bring them up and educate them. You thus show no concern for what their fate may be. They will probably have the usual fate of orphans. Either one should not have children, or one should share with them to the end the toil of upbringing and education. You seem to me to choose the easiest path, whereas one should choose the path a good and courageous man would choose, particularly when one claims throughout one’s life to care for virtue. l feel ashamed on your behalf and on behalf of us, your friends, lest all that has happened to you be thought due to cowardice on our part: the fact that your trial came to court when it need not have done so, the handling of the trial itself, and now this absurd ending which will be thought to have got beyond our control through some cowardice and unmanliness on our part, since we did not save you, or you save yourself, when it was possible and could be done if we had been of the slightest use. Consider, Socrates, whether this is not only evil, but shameful, both for you and for us. Take counsel with yourself, or rather the time for counsel is past and the decision should have been taken, and there is no further opportunity, for this whole business must be ended tonight. If we delay now, then it will no longer be possible; it will be too late. Let me persuade you on every count, Socrates, and do not act otherwise. Crito 41 SOCRATEs: My dear Crito, your eagerness is worth much if it should have some right aim; if not, then the greater your keenness the more difficult it is to deal with. We must therefore examine whether we should act in this way or not, as not only now but at all times I am the of man who listens to nothing within me but the argument that on reflection seems best to me. I cannot, now that this fate has come upon me, discard the arguments I used; they seem to me much the same. I value and respect the same principles as before, and if we have no better arguments to bring , up atrthis moment, be sure that I shall not agree With you, not even if the power of the majority were to frighten us with more bogeys, as we were children, with threats of incarcerations and executions and confiscation of property. How should we examine this matter most reasonably? Would it be by taking up first your argument about the opinions of men, whether it is sound in every case that one should pay attention to some opinions, but not to others? Or was that well-spoken before the necessity to die came upon me, but now it is clear that this was said in vain for the sake. of argument, that it was in truth play and nonsense? I. am eager .to examine together with you, Crito, whether this argument Will appear in any way different to me in my present circumstances, or whether it remains the same, whether we are to abandon it or believe it. It was said on every occaSion by those who thought they were speaking sensibly, as I have just now been speaking, that one should greatly value some people s opinions, but not others. Does that seem to you a sound statement? . ~ You, as far as a human being can tell, are exempt from the likelihood of dying tomorrow, so the present misfortune is not hkely to lead you astray. Consider then, do you not think it a sound statement that one must not value all the opinions of men, but some and not others, nor the opimons of all men, but those of some and not of others? What do you say? Is this not well said? CRITO: It is. . _ 7 SOCRATEs: One should value the good opinions, and not the bad ones. Cmo: Yes. . SOCRATES: The good opinions are those of Wise men, the bad ones those [of foolish men? - ,CRITO: Of course. . “SOCRATES: Come then, what of statements such as this: Should .a man professionally engaged in physical training pay attention to the praise and blame and opinion of any man, or to those of one man only, namely a [doctor or trainer? r :‘CRiTO: To those of one only. . wSOCRATEs: He should therefore fear the blame and welcome the praise of that one man, and not those of the many? CRITO: Obviously. . . 2:,SOCRATES: He must then act and exercise, eat and drink in the way the one, the trainer and the one who knows, thinks right, not all the others? 47 42 Crito Crito 43 CRrro: That is so. I SOCRATESZ As we have agreed so far, We moot examfllze neXt :Vheiliiieg C SOCRATESZ Very well. And if he disobeys the one, disregards his opinion is just for me to try to get out of here when the :3: gouaglandon and his praises while valuing those of the many who have no knowledge, me. If it is seen to be just W€.W111 try to Clo sol 1 1 13 ’ t tion the will he not suffer harm? theidea..As for those queS’flons You “71.158 abF’Ut money’ fell” a t t'h se CRITO; Of course. upbringing of children, Crito, those considerations truilvbe 31%: a gin SOCRATESI What is that harm, where does it tend, and what part of the peOple who easily put mento death and would bruit}: emFor us haw“ man who disobeys does it affect? if-they could, without thinking; I moan the majorlng ration, as we CRrrO: Obviously the harm is to his body, which it ruins. ever, since our argument leads to this, the onleva fig) . htl in’ .Ving SOCRATEs: Well said. So with other matters, not to enumerate them all, Were saying just DOW, 15 Whother W? 511011“ e :C ffieigang omilves d and certainly with actions just and unjust, shameful and beautiful, good money and gratitude to those who will lead me ouh:11 do Vinon in doing and bad, about which we are now deliberating, should we follow the helpingwith the escape, or Whether m with We? t1 then W? have no opinion of the many and fear it, or that of the one, if there is one who has allthis. If it appears that W8 Shall be aotmg Y' to die if we Stay knowledge of these things and before whom we feel fear and shame more need at all to take into account whether we s a h at; do wron than before all the others. If we do not follow his directions, we shall harm here and keep quiet, or suffer in another wajg rat ter 1:11]: see What? we and corrupt that part of ourselves that is improved by just actions and , CRITO: I think You Pm that beautlfuuy’ ocra 88' destro ed b un‘ust actions. Or is there nothin in this? should do. . - CRUZ; I think lhere certainly is, Socrates. ' g »_ SOCRATEs: Let us exam.ine the.queShOn tOgEither' m1}: (1:21:31: Ivigilalilsftlelrfi e SOCRATEs: Come now, if we ruin that which is improved by health and you can make any objection While; am Speakmg/ in: e r Crito then Stop corrupted by disease by not following the opinions of those who know, to yOu, but if You haVe no ooleotlon to make/ 11W oral ave h'ere against is life worth living for us when that is ruined? And that is the body, is it not? now from saying the same thing so often, that mus e d b fore l CRlTO: Yes. the will of the Athenians. I think it important to persua e you .e u. 49 SOCRATEs: And is life worth living with a body that is corrupted and in act, and not to act against your Wishes. See whether 1t<he start othcéuivlanq 1:1}: bad condition? is adequately stated, and try ’60 answer What I as You 1“ y y CRITO: In no way. think best. an SOCRATEs: And is life worth living for us with that art of us corru ted _ ,VCRITOZ I sh try. . .1]. that unjust action harms and just action benefits? Or do we think thatIpart _ SOCRATESZ Do we say that one must nEVer m 3113’ Wagldo?v‘got1;gdo WEE; of us, whatever it is, that is concerned with justice and injustice, is inferior or. must one do wrong in one way and not 111110 e:- have all these to the body? never good or admirable, as we have agreed in t e pas , ocr1 ? Have we b CRITO; Not at a11_ former agreements been washed out during the last few ays. ' ’ ‘ ‘ ’ ’ ions SOCRATEs: It is more valuable? ataour age failed to notice for some time that in our serious discuss CRITO: Much more. We were no different from children? Above all, is the truth such as we SOCRATEs: We should not then think so much of what the majority will y bou u bu ‘ ,h 1 H 1 used to say it was, whether the majority agree or not, and whtether vi: 3 “d u h “d 111 u t1 I ‘ ‘ Will b trea ed mo sa a t s, t at e . 3a ersta Si 5 ice a i l 5 .CE, must still suffer worse things than we do now, or e the one, that is, and the truth itself. So that, in the first place, you were gently, that nonetheless, wrongdoing or injustice is in every way harmful wrong to believe that we should care for the opinion of the many about and shameful to the wrongdoer? Do we say so or not? what is just, beautiful, good, and their opposites. uBut,” someone might CRITO: We do. * say, “the many are able to put us to death.” SocRATES: 50 one must never do wrong. CRITO: That too is obvious, Socrates, and someone might well say so. CRITO: Certainly not. ‘ . ' ' turn, as the SOCRATES: And, my admirable friend, that argument that we have gone SOCRATES: Nor must one, When wronged, mfllot wrong m re through remains, I think, as before. Examine the following statement in majority believe, since one must never do wrong. C turn as to Whether it Stays the same or not’ that the most important thing CRITO: That seems to be the case. ' is not life, but the good life. SOCRATES: Come now, should one mistreat anyone or not, Crito? CRITO: It stays the same. .CRITO’. One must never do so. . ~ ~ _ ‘ ' ‘ ‘ the ma ori SOCRATEs: And that the good life, the beautiful life, and the just life are :SOCRATES: Well then, if one 1§Oileself7mlstreated, is it right, as j ty the Same; does that still hold, or not? sa‘ '10 mistreat in return, or is it not. CRITO: It does hold. :CRITO: It is never right. 50 44 SOCRATEs: Mistreating people is no different from wrongdoing. CRITOZ That is true. SOCRATEs: One should never do wrong in return, nor mistreat any man ‘ r d no matter how one has been mistreated by him. And Crito, see that you do not agree to this, contrary to your belief. For I know that only a few people I hold this View or will hold it, and there is no common ground between those who hold this View and those who do not, but they inevitably despise each other’ s views. So then consider very carefully whether we have this View in common, and whether you agree, and let this be the basis of our deliberation, I that neither to do wrong nor to return a wrong is ever right, nor is bad treat- ment in return for bad treatment. Or do you disagree and do not share this View as a basis for discussion? I have held it for a long time and still hold it now, but if you think otherwise, tell me now. If, however, you stick to our former opinion, then listen to the next point. CRITO: I stick to it and agree With you. So say on. SOCRATEs: Then I state the next point, or rather I ask you: when one has come to an agreement that is just with someone, should one fulfill it or cheat on it? CRITO: One should fulfill it. SOORATES: See what follows from this: if we leave here without the city’s permission, are we mistreating people whom we should least mistreat? And are we sticking to a just agreement, or not? CRITO: I cannot answer your question, Socrates. I do not know. SOCRATEs: Look at it this way. If, as we were planning to run away from here, or whatever one should call it, the laws and the state came and confronted us and asked: “Tell me, Socrates, what are you intending to do? Do you not by this action you are attempting intend to destroy us the laws, and indeed the whole city, as far as you are concerned? Or do you think it possible for a city not to be destroyed if the verdicts of its courts have no force but are nullified and set at naught by private individuals?” What shall we answer to this and other such arguments? For many things could be said, especially by an orator on behalf of this law we'are destroying, which orders that the judgments of the courts shall be carried out. Shall we say in answer, “The city wronged me and its deciSion was not right.” Shall we say that, or what? I CRITo: Yes, by Zeus, Socrates, that is our answer. SOCRATEs: Then what if the laws said: “Was that the agreement between us, socrates, or was it to respect the judgments that the city came to?” And if we wondered at their words, they would perhaps add: “Socrates do not wonder at what we say but answer, since you are accustomed to proceed by question and answer. Come now, what accusation do you bringagainst us and the city, that you should try to destroy us? Did we not, first, bring you to birth, and was it not through us that your father married your mother and begat you? Tell you, do you find anything to critic1ze in those of us who are concerned with marriage?” And I would say that I do not criticize them. “Or in those of us concerned with the Crito 10 45 nurture of babies and the education that you too received? Were those assigned to that subject not right to instruct your father to educate you in the arts and in physical culture?” And I would say that they were right. my well,” they would continue, "and after you were born and nurtured ,d educated, could you, in the first place, deny that you are our offspring ,nd servant, both you and your forefathers? If that is so, do you think hat we are on an equal footing as regards the right, and that whatever e do to you it is right for you to do to us? You were not on an equal foOti-ng with your father as regards the right, nor with your master if you had one, so as to retaliate for anything they did to you, to revile them if they reviled you, to beat them if they beat you, and so with many other things. Do you think you have this right to retaliation against your country and its laws? That if we undertake to destroy you and think it right to do so, you can undertake to destroy us, as far as you can, in return? And will on say that you are right to do so, you who truly care for Virtue? Is your Wisdom such as not to realize that your country is to be honored more than your mother, your father and all your ancestors, that it is more to be revered and more sacred, and that it counts for more among the gods and sensible men, that you must worship it, yield to it and placate its anger more than your father’s? You must either persuade it or obey its orders, and endure in silence whatever it instructs you to endure, whether blows or bonds, and if it leads you into war to be wounded or killed, you must obey. To do so is right, and one must not give way or retreat or leave one’s post, but both in war and in courts and everywhere else, one must obey the commands of one’s city and country, or persuade it as to the nature of justice. It is impious to bring violence to bear against your mother Or father; it is much more so to use it against your country.” What shall we say in reply, Crito, that the laws speak the truth, or not? ‘CRITO: I think they do. SOCRATES: “Reflect now, Socrates,” the laws might say, “that if what we say is true, you are not treating us rightly by planning to do what you are planning. We have given you birth, nurtured you, educated you; we have given you and all other citizens a share of all the good things we could. Even so, by giving every Athenian the opportunity, once arrived ,at voting age and having observed the affairs of the city and us the laws, we proclaim that if we do not please him, he can take his possessions and go wherever he pleases. Not one of our laws raises any obstacle or forbids him, if he is not satisfied with us or the city, if one of you wants to go "and live in a colony or wants to go anywhere else, and keep his property. We say, however, that whoever of you remains, when he sees how we onduct our trials and manage the city in other ways, has in fact come to _, n agreement with us to obey our instructions. We say that the one who disobeys does wrong in three ways, first because in us he disobeys his parents, also those who brought him up, and because, in spite of his ' agreement, he neither obeys us nor, if we do something wrong, does he to persuade us to do better. Yet we only propose things, we do not 51 52 53 46 Crito to 47 the jury that they passed the right sentence on you, for anyone who koys the laws could easily be thought to corrupt the young and the gnorant. Or will you avoid cities that are well governed and men who " e civilized? If you do this, will your life be worth living? Will you have Oc-ialE intercourse with them and not be ashamed to talk to them? And hat will you say? The same as you did here, that virtue and justice are an’s most precious possession, along with lawful behavior and the laws? 0 you not think that Socrates would appear to be an unseemly kind of erson? One must think so. Or will you leave those places and go to Crito’s nds in Thessaly? There you will find the greatest license and disorder, and they may enjoy hearing from you how absurdly you escaped from risen in some disguise, in a leather jerkin or some other things in which scapees wrap themselves, thus altering your appearance. Will there be 0' one to say that you, likely to live but a short time more, were so greedy or life that you transgressed the most important laws? Possibly, Socrates, issue savage commands to do whatever we order; we give two alternatives, _ either to persuade us or to do what we say. He does neither. We do say that you too, Socrates, are open to those charges if you do what you have in mind; you would be among, not the least, but the most guilty of the Athenians.” And if I should say ”Why so?” they might well be right to upbraid me and say that I am among the Athenians who most definitely came to that agreement with them. They might well say: “Socrates, we have convincing proofs that we and the city were congenial to you. You would not have dwelt here most consistently of all the Athenians if the city had not been exceedingly pleasing to you. You have never left the city, even to see a festival, nor for any other reason except military service; you have never gone to stay in any other city, as people do; you have had no desire to know another city or other laws; we and our city satisfied you. "So decisively did you choose us and agree to be a citizen under us. Also, you have had children in this city, thus showing that it was congenial to you. Then at your trial you could have assessed your penalty at exile if you wished, and you are now attempting to do against the city’ s wishes What you could then have done with her consent. Then you prided yourself that you did not resent death, but you chose, as you said, death in prefer: ence to exile. Now, however, those words do not make you ashamed, and you pay no heed to us, the laws, as you plan to destroy us, and you act like the meanest type of slave by trying to run away, contrary to your commitments and your agreement to live as a citizen under us. First then, answer us on this very point, whether we speak the truth when we say that you agreed, not only in words but by your deeds, to live in accordance with us.” What are we to say to that, Crito? Must we not agree? CRITO: We must, Socrates. I SOCRArEs: “Surely,” they might say, "you are breaking the commitments and agreements that you made with us without compulsion or deceit, and under no pressure of time for deliberation. You have had seventy years during which you could have gone away if you did not like us, and if you thought our agreements unjust. You did not choose to go to Sparta or to Crete, which you are always saying are well governed, nor to any other city, Greek or foreign. You have been away from Athens less than the lame or the blind or other handicapped people. It is clear that the city has been outstandingly more congenial to you than to other Athenians, and so have we, the laws, for what city can please without laws? Will you then not now stick to our agreements? You will, Socrates, if we can persuade you, and not make yourself a laughingstock by leaving the city. "For consider what good you will do yourself or your friends by breaking our agreements and committing such a wrong. It is pretty obvious that your friends will themselves be in danger of exile, disfranchisement and loss of property. As for yourself, if you go to one of the nearby cities—4, Thebes or Megara, both are well governed—you will arrive as an enemy to their government; all who care for their city will look on you with suspicion, as a destroyer of the laws. You will also strengthen the conviction ad gone to a banquet in Thessaly? As for those conversations of yours bout justice and the rest of virtue, where will they be? You say you want 0 live for the sake of your children, that you may bring them up and ducate them. How so? Will you bring them up and educate them by aking them to Thessaly and making strangers of them, that they may njoy‘ that too? Or not so, but they will be better brought up and educated ere, while you are alive, though absent? Yes, your friends will look after hem. Will they look after them if you go and live in Thessaly, but not if on go away to the underworld? If those who profess themselves your friends are any good at all, one must assume that they will. more just or more pious here, nor will any one of your friends, nor will 1: be better for you when you arrive yonder. As it is, you depart, if you epart, after being wronged not by us, the laws, but by men; but if you __’epart after shamefully returning wrong for wrong and mistreatment for mistreatment, after breaking your agreements and commitments with us, after mistreating those you should mistreat least——yourself, your friends, our country and us—we shall be angry with you while you are still alive, and our brothers, the laws of the underworld, will not receive you kindly, I 0ng that you tried to destroy us as far as you could. Do not let Crito ersuade you, rather than us, to do what he says.” Crito, my dear friend, be assured that these are the words I seem to ar, as the Corybants seem to hear the music of their flutes, and the echo f these words resounds in me, and makes it impossible for me to hear ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/03/2012 for the course PHILOSOPHY 01:730:103 taught by Professor Prestongreene during the Spring '12 term at Rutgers.

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crito - 42 important, I could spend my time testing and...

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