ch.26-29 cheat sheets - AP Biology Campbell Textbook...

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Sponges - Animals, multicellular, heterotrophic, no cell walls, few specialized cells - Choanocytes (specialized cells use flagella to move current of water thru sponge, trap food particles). - Osculum (large hole at top) - Spicule (made of calcium carbonate or silica; makes skeleton of hard sponges, captures sunlight and directs the sunlight to cells below surface of cells, these cells photosynthesize) - Archaeocytes (specialized cells that move around within the walls of the sponge, complete digestive process, carry sperm to egg, groups of archaeocytes covered by spicules are called gemmules) - The movement of water thru sponge is key for feeding (intracellular), reproduction (sexually: internal fertilization – eggs fertilized in body, zygote develops called larvae which are motile, asexually : thru budding, part of sponge breaks off and grows/ or it produce gemmules, which later become a new sponge ), circulation, excretion, response (no nervous systems, produce toxins) - Commensalism relationships w/ photo bacteria, algae, plant protists, which provide O2 and sponge provides shelter. Cnidarians - Soft-bodies, carnivorous animals, have stinging tentacles around their mouths, simplest animals that have symmetry and specialized tissues. - Cnidocytes (stinging cells for defense, captures prey, contains nematocyst) - Nematocyst( poison filled stinging dart, paralyzes prey) - Two life stages: polyp(cylindrical body with armlike tentacles, upwards mouth, sessile). Medusa (motile, bell-shaped, downwards mouth). - Three main tissues in both stages: epidermis, mesolgea, gastroderm (lines gastrovascular cavity- digestive chamber with one opening) - Response (nerve net- loosely organized network of nerve cells, allow cnidarians to detect stimuli, have Statocysts- sensory cells detect gravity, have Oceli which detect light. - Hydrostatic skeleton (layer of circular muscles and longitudinal muscles; movement - Reproduction: external fertilization outside females body, zygote grows into larva, larva attaches to a hard surface and develops into polyp, poly release medusa - Jellyfish: Scyphozoa, no colonies, sexual reproduction, medusas, can grow huge - Hydras and relatives: hydrozoa, colonies, Portuguese man of war contains specialized polyps, hydras: solitary polyps only, get nutrition from stinging small prey and symbiotic photosynthetic protists. - Sea anemones: anthozoa, solitary polyps . Corals: colonial, single polyp first grows when motile larva settles, new polyps grows thru budding, sexual reproduction, require light for photosynthetic symbionts - Chemicals, divers, sediments cause stress and kill corals by poisoning, damaging, or smothering them. Coral bleaching occurs with high temps in the water, and produces white skeletons. .. because of global warming. Flatworms
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This note was uploaded on 01/02/2012 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Dr.chan during the Fall '11 term at Marine Biological Laboratory.

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ch.26-29 cheat sheets - AP Biology Campbell Textbook...

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