Chap.23=24 - Biology Honors Prentice Hall Textbook by...

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Biology Honors Prentice Hall Textbook by Miller/Levine 2/10/10 Chapter 23 1. B 2. A 3. A 4. C 5. B 6. A 7. B 8. C 9. C 10. C 11. The two types of vascular tissues are xylem and phloem. Xylem consists of tracheids and vessel elements and it is a water conducting tissue. Phloem consists of sieve tube elements and companion cells and it is a food conducting tissue. 12. Parenchyma, Collenchyma, and Sclerenchyma are Parenchyma cells have thin cell walls and large central vacuoles surrounded by a thin layer of cytoplasm. Collenchyma cells have strong flexible cell walls that help support larger plants. Sclerenchyma cells have extremely thick, rigid cell walls that make ground tissue tough and strong. 13. In root cross sections, the vascular tissue is arranged vertically, but in stem cross sections, the vascular tissue is arranged in a circular pattern. 14. Root hairs penetrate the surface between soil particles and produce a large surface area through which water can enter the plant. 15. During secondary growth, vascular cambium appears as a thin layer situated between phloem and xylem. Divisions in the vascular cambium give rise to new layers of xylem and phloem, and causes the stem to grow thicker. 16. Bark develops from phloem, which transports nutrients, cork cambium, which produces a thick protective layer, and cork, which prevents loss of water. 17. The three main functions of leaves are photosynthesis, which produces food, transpiration, which is the loss of water through leaves, and gas exchange, which maintains a balance for photosynthesis and transpiration. 18. The epidermis and cuticle cells form a waterproof barrier that protects tissues and limits the loss of water due to evaporation. The pore like openings allow photosynthesis to take place but not so much so that the leaves lose an excessive amount of water. 19. The combination of root pressure, capillary action (adhesion), and transpiration provides enough force to move water through the xylem tissue of plants. 20. When water is abundant, it flows into the leaf, raising water pressure in the guard cells which the open the stomata When water is scarce, the water pressure in the leaf falls, and the guard cell close the stomata. 21. Phloem carries out the seasonal movement of sugars within a plant. These sugars are
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Chap.23=24 - Biology Honors Prentice Hall Textbook by...

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