CHAPTER 9 - Biology Honors Prentice Hall Textbook by...

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Biology Honors Prentice Hall Textbook by Miller/Levine Chapter 19 Cheat Sheet Prokaryotes are divided into 2 kingdoms: Eubacteria (carbohydrate peptidoglycan) and Archaebacteria (no peptidoglycan, DNA sequences more like eukaryotes). Bacilli (rod-shaped), cocci (sphere-shaped), spirilla (spiral or corck-screwed) are types of prokaryotes. Gram staining identifies 2 cell walls; violet = gram +, pink = gram – Heterotrophic prokaryotes include chemoheterotrophs (take in organic molecules for energy and carbon); photoheterotrophs (take in sunlight for energy, org. mols. for C) Autotrophic prokaryotes include photoautotrophs (use light energy to convert CO2 and H2O into C and O2); chemoautotrophs (use chemical reactions instead of light energy). Obligate aerobes need oxygen, obligate aerobes need the absence of oxygen, facultative anaerobes survive w/ or w/o. prokaryotes release energy through fermentation/respiration Binary fission (bacterium divides to produce two identical cells), Conjugation (genes
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CHAPTER 9 - Biology Honors Prentice Hall Textbook by...

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