Chapter_04-AqueousReactions

Chapter_04-AqueousRe - Chapter 4 Aqueous reactions Chapter Dissolving General Solutions are homogeneous mixtures Real solutions do not scatter the

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Chapter 4. Aqueous reactions Chapter 4. Aqueous reactions General General Dissolving Real solutions do not scatter the light. Solutions are homogeneous mixtures Biggest part of chemistry is “wet” chemistry. Reactions go faster in solutions. With solution we can dose ultra-small quantities of solute
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Chapter 4. Aqueous reactions Chapter 4. Aqueous reactions General General Solvents Similar dissolves similar Water (the most common solvent on Earth) dissolves ionic compounds very well. Hexane (organic solvent) dissolves oil and fat. Dimethyl sulfoxide (“organic water”) dissolves most of organic compounds exceptionally well. H 2 O C 6 H 14 CH 3 -S-CH 3 || O
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Chapter 4. Aqueous reactions Chapter 4. Aqueous reactions General General Solubility Unlimited solubility Solubility increases with temperature Depending on ratio solvent can become solute. Example: ethanol in water Limited solubility Example: CuSO 4 in water Practical usage: purification by recrystallization How much of a solute can be dissolved
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Chapter 4. Aqueous reactions Chapter 4. Aqueous reactions Solubility patterns Solubility patterns for common ionic compounds in water, based on empirical data
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Chapter 4. Aqueous reactions Chapter 4. Aqueous reactions General General Solubility chart – another way to present solubility Ag Al Ba Bi Ca Cd Co Cr Cu Fe H Hg K Mg Mn Na NH 4 Ni Pb Sn Sr Zn Acetate I S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S Bromide I S S S S S S S S S I S S S S S S I S S S Carbonate I I I I I I I I I I S I S I I S S I I I I I Chlorate S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S Chloride I S S S S S S S S S S I S S S S S S I S S S Chromate I S I S S S S S S S S I S S S S S S I S I S Cyanide I S I I S I I I I S S S S S S I I S I Fluoride S S I S I S S S I I S S I I S S I I S I I Hydroxide I I S I SS I I I I I S I S I I S S I I I SS I Iodide I S S S S S S S S S S I S S S S S S I S S S Nitrate S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S Oxide I I S I I I I I I I S I S I I I I I S I Phosphate I I I I I I I I I I S I S I I S S I I I I I Silicate I I I I I I I I I I S I S I I S S I I I I I Sulfate SS S I S SS S S S S S S I S S S S S S I S I S Sulfide I I I I I I I I I I S I S I I S S I I I I I Sulfite I I I I I I I I I I S I S I I S S I I I I I S- soluble (>1 mol/L), SS – slightly soluble I – insoluble (<10 mmol/L).
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Chapter 4. Aqueous reactions Chapter 4. Aqueous reactions General General Electrolytes Water-soluble substances Electrolytes conduct electric current Nonelectrolytes do not conduct electric current Ionic compounds Acids Bases Molecular compounds Water dipole (screens elctrostatic attraction between cations and anions) (Conductivity demo)
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Chapter 4. Aqueous reactions
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This note was uploaded on 01/02/2012 for the course CHEM 114 taught by Professor Sergeiaksyonov during the Fall '11 term at ASU.

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Chapter_04-AqueousRe - Chapter 4 Aqueous reactions Chapter Dissolving General Solutions are homogeneous mixtures Real solutions do not scatter the

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