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Lecture7CHM233(10)final

Lecture7CHM233(10)final - Organic Chemistry Third Edition...

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! Organic Chemistry, Third Edition Janice Gorzynski Smith University of Hawai’i Chapter 4 Alkanes
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Which of the following compounds should have dipole- dipole interactions? #$ %& '& (& ) ##$ '& )& * ###$ '& (& ) #+$ %& (& * +$ (& ) O H 3 C Cl N H A B C D E
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The indicated carbon atom is A) Nucleophilic because it is electron-rich. B) Electrophilic because it is electron-rich. C) Nucleophilic because it is electron-deficient. D) Electrophilic because it is electron-deficient.
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, The suffix “-ane” identifies a molecule as an alkane. Naming Alkanes C n H 2n +2
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- Cycloalkanes have molecular formula C n H 2n and contain carbon atoms arranged in a ring. Simple cycloalkanes are named by adding the prefix cyclo- to the name of the acyclic alkane having the same number of carbons. Cycloalkanes
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. The name of every organic molecule has 3 parts: 1. The parent name indicates the number of carbons in the longest continuous chain. 2. The prefix tells us the identity, location, and number of substituents attached to the carbon chain. 3. The suffix indicates what functional group is present. Nomenclature
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/ Carbon substituents bonded to a long carbon chain are called alkyl groups. An alkyl group is formed by removing one H atom from an alkane. To name an alkyl group, change the –ane ending of the parent alkane to –yl . Thus, methane (CH 4 ) becomes methyl (CH 3 –) and ethane (CH 3 CH 3 ) becomes ethyl (CH 3 CH 2 –). Alkyl Groups
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0 Naming three- or four-carbon alkyl groups is more complicated because the parent hydrocarbons have more than one type of hydrogen atom. For example, propane has both 1° and 2° H atoms, and removal of each of these H atoms forms a different alkyl group with a different name, propyl or isopropyl. Naming Three Carbon Alkyl Groups
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1 Step [1] Find the parent (longest continuous carbon chain) and add the suffix (ane). 2 It does not matter if the chain is straight or it bends. Naming Using the IUPAC System
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!3 If there are two chains of equal length, pick the chain with more substituents. In the following example, two different chains in the same alkane have seven C atoms. We circle the longest continuous chain as shown in the diagram on the left, since this results in the greater number of substituents.
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