Lecture5_slides_2Sept

Lecture5_slides_2Sept - Phylogenetics Phylogenetics The...

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1 1 Phylogenetics The science of reconstructing trees 2 Phylogenetics Phylogenetics aims to determine the evolutionary history and relationships among taxa The science of reconstructing trees 3 Phylogenetics Important stuff, right from the start The Origin of Species is over 300 pages long. Darwin only included a single image! “Diagram of divergence of taxa” 4 Phylogenetics: the science of reconstructing evolutionary trees Lecture Outline 1. Tree Anatomy 2. Characters & Homology 3. Reconstructing Trees 1. Cladistic analysis 5 Tree anatomy: The same tree can be drawn in different ways. 6 Tree anatomy: Nodes Where lineages split -- one ancestral lineage divides into two or more derived lineages
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2 7 Tree anatomy: Nodes Trees can swivel at nodes with no change in evolutionary relationships 8 Tree anatomy: Branches or Internodes Represent populations through time 9 Tree anatomy: Terminal taxa or tips The most recent ( derived ) branches. (Living or extinct) 10 Terminal taxa are often species “A species-level phylogeny” But tips can represent any biological level Alleles – “gene tree” Genus, Family, Order, Phylum… Domains– “Tree of Life” Tree anatomy: Terminal taxa or tips Taxon (singular) Taxa (plural) 11 Alelles from a west-african population of warthogs Tree anatomy: Terminal taxa or tips “Gene Tree” - tips are alleles 12 Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Tree anatomy: Terminal taxa or tips “Tree of Life” - Tips are Domains
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3 13 Tree anatomy: Polytomy a node with >2 derived lineages 14 common ancestor Tree anatomy: Clade
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Lecture5_slides_2Sept - Phylogenetics Phylogenetics The...

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