Lecture10_handout_16Sep11 - BioEE1780 Evolution and...

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BioEE1780 Evolution and Biodiversity Today’s lecturer: Cole Gilbert Lecture 10: Sept. 16, 2011 Diversity 3 page -1 Endosymbiosis and the rise of eukaryotes Readings: Life, 9 th ed. Chapter 27, Supplemental article: van der Giezen, M. 2011. Mitochondria and the rise of Eukaryotes, BioScience, 61(8):594-601. Since Antonj van Leeuwenhoek described his first microscopic “animalcules” in 1676, single-celled organisms have been found to occur everywhere. With higher powered microscopes, it became clear that the smaller of these organisms had no membrane-bound inclusions in their cytoplasm. These are the “prokaryotes” we discussed on Wednesday. The larger single-celled organisms had a variety of membrane bound inclusions. These are the microeukaryotes that we will discuss today. All had a nucleus that contained the chromosome(s) and mitochondria, and some also had plastids, including chloroplasts. Even before the advent of molecular sequencing and phylogenetic techniques, there was evidence that the mitochondria and plastids shared traits with “prokaryotes”. They have their own DNA. Some plastids even have a layer of peptidoglycan between the layers of membrane that
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Lecture10_handout_16Sep11 - BioEE1780 Evolution and...

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