Class 5 presentation 2011

Class 5 presentation 2011 - Aldwell/Schachter 16 Mozart...

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Unformatted text preview: Aldwell/Schachter, 16 Mozart, Piano Quartet in G minor, K. 478, first movement (1785) Schubert, String Quartet in G, D. 887, first movement (1826) be realized as a Romanesca: e x . 2 .5 Handel, from his exercises for Princess Anne, Allegro, m. 4 (ca. 1724–34) Romanesca X X X Xv X . 2 E j E .. b b 18 X . X & w 4 4 ? 2 b 18 b ex. 2.6 1762) XXXXXX XX J 1 5 jX X X X{ X . X. X E E .. u z X . jX X X X .. EX E y XXXXXX XX X X XXXXXXXXXX J XX X J X X 6 4 3 1 Cimarosa, from his student notebook (zibaldone) of partimenti, m. 1 (Naples, Romanesca w X cX & 1 c ? v X X u 5 5 5 6 X X 1 y X X X XX XXX X X X X XXXX XXXXXXXXX X X X X { XXXXXXXXXXXX 5 X. X X z X X 5 5 3 4 X 5 1 6 4 3 Strong W e ak Strong W e ak Strong Weak 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 1 5 6 3 4 f igu r e 2.1 A schema of the Romanesca with a leaping bass 1 X KJ X J & 2he parallel thirds aJ sung byJthe lower twoXvoices: X X X . X X .. X X XX J t re e x . D.r8 i Knäbchefn, jung, schön,hold,uKV620), -se umo. h,web--en e1791)auf 2 e Mozart, rom The Magic Flute ( nd wei- act 1, n sc5 Andante ( uch b2 @ ?b 2 b 21 X b2 X X K & D D nesca Roma D X 7X a X a X a ja ja X X X X . 6 X a X X X X X X X X4 X . 5 X X X X X X X XX X. JJJJ XX jX .. XX 3 X X. X D D eu---rer D eu---rer Reise. Johann Schobert (ca. 1735–1767), a celebrated keyboard player working in Paris and someone whose music the young Mozart studied assiduously, provided a more florid example of this Romanesca variant in the opening of his F-major trio: ex. 2.9 1 7 6 5 4 Schobert, Opus 6, no. 1, mvt. 1, Andante, m. 1 (Paris, ca. 1761–63) D Reise. X X . XX . XX XX X X X j X XXXX J J Drei Knäbchen, jung, schön,hold,und wei--se umschweb--en euch auf b2 @ ?b 2 Xj J XX X D 3 Johann Schobert (ca. 1735–1767), a celebrated keyboard player working in Paris and Romanesca someone whose music the young Mozart studied assiduously, provided a more florid example of this Romanesca variant in the opening of his F-major trio: w v u { zy uX k @ vwxyz{1X 34567 @2 b 2e x .X2 .X9 SkX X OpusX6, no.X1, mXvt. 1, Andante, X . 1 (Paris,kca. 1761–63) X X X X X X X 4 chobert, X X m X XX X X & X X wX X v X uX { z 2a 2X k Xyz{X123456y X X X X X X X Xk X @ X @ X X X X7 X X X X [email protected] b 4 b 4 @ X XX X @ XvwxX X ?& XX X X kX X X X X 1 2a ?b 4 7 @ X XX X X Romanesca 6 5 X XX X @X 4 3 @X X XX X As an abstraction, this variant of the Romanesca features a stepwise descending bass in 1 XXXX X Strong w 5 3 1 Weak v 6 3 7 f igu r e 2.2 Strong u 5 3 6 Weak { 6 3 5 Strong Weak z 5 3 4 A schema of the Romanesca with a stepwise bass y 6 3 3 nonetheless very common, and it was implied in the partimento of Tritto shown earlier (ex. 2.1). Thus Wodiczka’s bass—one used by countless other court musicians—resembles an abbreviated hybrid of the two main variants: E E E Stepwise Variant ? E E ? E E ? E E Galant norm f igu r e 2.3 E E E Leaping Variant E E E 5 3 E E 6 3 The galant Romanesca bass as a hybrid The first three tones of the galant bass match the stepwise variant, while its third through fifth tones match the leaping variant, though with a slightly different sonority. In place of the 5/3 sonority for the fourth event, the galant Romanesca usually has a 6/3 sonority. That is, for the bass shown above (in the key of C major), the galant version would sound a C-major chord at the point where the leaping or stepwise variants sound an Eminor chord. Why? When I have posed this question to students and colleagues, they generally answer in ways that would have puzzled the musicians who conceived this music. My beginning students’ training in “chord grammar” does not help them explain why, in the key of G ex. 2.21 Hasse, 12 Solfeggi, no. 2, Allegro, m. 1 (ca. 1730s) Romanesca y y X X X X RX X X X X X X X X RX X XX k k XX XX 6 6 6 6 cX X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X ?b u bc X & 1 1 7 6 3 4 Chapter 2 t he romanesca ex. 2.22 41 N Psalm ( Hasse’s olfeggio ncludes a ightly figured (ca. for which Neapolitan musiSammartini, ote that J-C105), smvt. 6, Giloria Patri,lAndante, m. 9bass, 1750s) cians also used the term partimento. The melody thus was schematically contextualized by its companion partimento, and the partimento was partially realized by its companion melRomanesca ody. Rather than being a single melodic line intended to teach some aspect of vocal gymnastics, y u y as in the nineteenth century, an eighteenth-century Neapolitan solfeggio was a u two-voice composition intended to teach melodic elegance and refinement in the context jj XX of the particular schemata codified by its companion partimento. Students who worked through these solfeggios would have an advantage when called upon to create keyboard realizations of free-standing partimento basses. That is, they could use solfeggios to “fortify their memory” with appropriate melodies, which could then be recalled when prompted X. X. ® # X X X X X X X # 2 X X X X X. X. ® X X X X. X X X X X X X. X. X X X & 4 XXX XX #2 X X X X X X X X X XX 4 ? by particular contexts or “occasions” in the partimento bass. 9 9 1 X X XXXXX X X X XX XXX 7the manner of a “usual scene” from the commedia dell’arte, the galant Romanesca In 6 4 depended for its effect on the3 quality of its presentation, not its originality. Yet it was never 42 m usic in the galant style composer and been recruited to England where he became the “London” Bach: e x . 2 . 23 J. C. Bach, Opus 5, no. 3, mvt. 1, Allegro, m. 63 (London, 1766) Bach’s follow-on riposte to the Romanesca, labeled with question marks in example 2.23, was itself one of the most common galant schemata, and i?t forms the subject of the followRomanesca ing chapter. yX X y X X X XXXX X X X X X X X X X # X X XnX X # c XXXX X a X a XX X XX X & J XXXX #c X X X X X X XortlyXmaestro finally arrives and signals Xor a performance of his motet Domus mea to comX X X X Xf? X & X p X 1 z xw these u After listeningjtou many examples of the galant Romanesca, you may have now X Xp k acquired a “refined ear” and the ability to judge whether ak articular presentation of it posX sesses a “superior gracefulness.” Imagine yourself at the Vatican in 1750, in conversation with a devotee of galant sacred music. As musicians enter the chamber of Cardinal Albani, you sit and await the Naples-trained maestro di capella, Niccolò Jommelli (1714–1774). The 63 7 mence. It opens with a largo Romanesca. The two high male voices are supported by an 6 4 3his left hand and harmonies in his right: organist softly playing the bass in ? ex. 2.24 Jommelli, Domus mea, m. 1 (Rome, 1750) Romanesca ### c X . y & jX Xj Do - - - - - - mus m u ¥ X. X X X me - - a ### c X a X a X a j a J J J X ? XX X X .. X X X j X X X XX X X X X J Do - - - - - - - - mus o-ra - - ti - o - - - - nis 6 3 5 1 7 6 3 XaXaXXj J J X 4 There were several possible choices for the second chord (above ), three of which Strong Weak Strong Weak 5 3 6 3 5 3 6 3 7 6 1 3 f igu r e 2.4 A schema of the preferred galant Romanesca with added, typical upper voices: Cimarosa, from his student notebook of partimenti, m. 1 (Naples, 1762) e x . 2 .7 folia w E X X b3 E &4 1 v E X X #E X #5 3 3 a X X X X a #X X X X X ?b4 5 3 5 6& ? E E 5 3 a 1 X X XXX XX E E 5 3 5 a XX X X XX E E X a XX 5 3 E E E E X X XXX a XX XXX a XX 5 3 X X XX 5 3 XX EX # X X X bX X 6 5 4 X X #3 X E E ¥ XXX a XX 5 3 These forms of the Romanesca and Folia, part of the patrimony of late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century musicians, were frequently modified as time passed. For the ...
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