Class 10 presentation 2011

Class 10 presentation 2011 - music Or put another way it...

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Unformatted text preview: music. Or put another way, it highlights only what Locatelli has in common with RimskyKorsakov. Walther, following the lead of Andreas Werckmeister (1645–1706),3 looked at clausulae more melodically, as was then the norm. For him, each of the four voices performed its own clausula, participating as an integral part in the “perfection” of the whole. The soprano performed the discant clausula, the alto performed the alto clausula, the tenor performed the tenor clausula, and the bass performed the bass clausula:4 e x . 1 1. 2 2 &2 2 ?2 A version of Walther’s four melodic clausulae XXE w E. w X E. E w w E X Soprano Tenor Bass Al t o w w w w w Any of these melodic clausulae could appear in the bass voice or part. Walther reserved the term clausula perfectissima for cadences where the normal bass performed the bass clausula ( – ). If the discant clausula ( – ) was performed by the lowest voice, he named the resulting cadence a clausula cantizans (“a cantus- or soprano-like clausula”); if the tenor clausula ( – ) appeared in the lowest voice, he named the resulting cadence a clausula tenorizans (“a tenor-like clausula”); and if the alto clausula ( – ) was played by the lowest voice, he named the resulting cadence a clausula altizans (“an alto-like clausula”). Walther’s treatise was, after all, written in the era of figured bass and partimenti. It drew attention to specific patterns in the bass that could help a young accompanist recognize the Gjerdingen, Music in the Galant Style, 140 (after Johann Gottfried Walther, friend of J. S. Bach) “simple ending” or “basic fall”—the Italian root of cadenza means both to fall and to terminate. If was repeated an octave lower before continuing to , the clausula was called cadenza composta, a “compound ending” involving the addition of a “cadential” 6/4 or 5/4 chord. Here are two instantiations in two different meters: Chapter 11 c lausulae Bass cadences (5-1) e x . 1 1.3 The standard galant clausula in its “simple” and “compound” forms 4¥XXX ?4 66 5 Simple In chapter 7, the discussion of the Monte Romanesca t aught by Mozart to T XX Attwood made mention of a cadenza doppia6 r “double cadence.” The “simple,” o6 E D 3D X 4 6 E¥ 54 pound” (see ex. 11.3), and “double” cadences were the three types expressly name taught to students of partimenti (see also appendix B, ex. B.1). Example 11.48 shows t X standard forms of the Cadenza Doppia, the first one the basic type and the secon characterized by theCddition ufnd ominant seventh (F5).22 a ompoo a d 34 5 1 3 4 55 1 e x . 1 1 . 4 8 The Cadenza Doppia, plain and with the dominant seventh In describing difficulties that arise when we seek to study improvised arts in the past, Ca points out doppia the theater historian Domenico Pietropaolodenza that while “our descriptive language Cadenza d 4X 4X & w 5 X E EX ww w 1 X7 X XE w EX 5 Historically, this cadence was old even in the eighteenth century, retained larg pedagogical or sacred works. Generally reserved for the final cadence, the Cadenza D made an appearance at the end of almost every partimento. This meant that as the s worked his or her way through a large collection of partimenti, the Cadenza Doppia Gjerdingen, Music in the Galant Style, 141, 169 be played over and over again. By dint of repetition each of its voices became emble w w characterized by the addition of a dominant seventh (F5).22 1 5 1 5 H The C this cadence was plain a in he e the dominant s retained e x . 1 1. 4 8 istorically,adenza Doppia,old evennd twithighteenth century, eventh largely for pedagogical or sacred works. Generally reserved for the final cadence, the Cadenza Doppia Cade at the nd of a pia made an appearancenza edoplmost every partimento. This meant tadetheztudentoppia C hat as n s a d worked his or her way through a large collection of partimenti, the Cadenza Doppia would 7 be played over and over again. By dint of repetition each of its voices became emblematic of cadencing, and traces of those voices can be found in many of the lighter galant clausulae. If one t akes the soprano and alto voices from a version of the Cadenza Doppia with the dominant seventh and removes its pedal-point bass, one can replicate the soprano-bass combination of a Comma followed by a Mi-Re-Do cadence with the standard bass (ex. 11.49). Several his cadence w type w even in earlier in examples 11.6, 7 etained Historically, texamples of this as old ere shownthe eighteenth century,,rand 13. largely for 4X 4X & w 5 X E EX ww w 1 X X w X E EX 1 ww w 1 5 pedagogical or sacred works. Generally reserved for the final cadence, the Cadenza Doppia ex. 11.49 Homologies between the Cadenza Doppia and more galant clausulae made an appearance at the end of almost every partimento. This meant that as the student com the worked his or herCadhrough dlarge icollection of partimenti, ma Cadenza Doppia would way tenza a opp a complete be played over and over again. By dint of repetition each of its voices became emblematic x x w 2—3 u u of cadencing, and tracesvf those voices can be found in many w the v 2 — galant clausuo of lighter 3 1 lae. If one t akes the soprano and alto voices from a version of the Cadenza Doppia with the 7 1 XXEX 4X X E X ww ww 4X E XE & w w Xcan rX X theXsoprano-bass w dominant seventh and removes its pedal-point bass, one eplicate 1 1 1 7 combination5 a Comma followed by a Mi-Re-Do cadence with the standard bass (ex. of 5 4 11.49). Several examples of this type were shown earlier in examples 11.6, 7, and 13. Walther’s four categories of clausulae, which recognize the partly independent mean- ings and histories of the individual voices, were differentiated only by the final two tones in e x . 1t1. 4bass. The subcategories shown in this adenzawere sometimes dore galant clausulae he 9 Homologies between the Cchapter Doppia and mifferentiated by how the bass arrived at those final two tones. The Comma and Long Comma, for example, differ in comma having Caand nza dasses,pia – de – – b op respectively. Sala made a distinction between omom-ete c the c pl 1 dom to “mix ahat, match” stock bdiversemn structurend diminutions, even gn the case of highly close t nd although quite asses, i elodies, a and complexity, were i enerally expected to stereotyped con the keynote, . One prominent class of cadential melodies featured a – – or mi– lausulae. Simple re–do descent. A typical example occurs in a small keyboard work by Cimarosa: e x . 1 1 .5 Mozart, KV1a, m. 5 (1761; age 5) e x . 1 1. 4 Cimarosa, Sonata C30, Allegretto, m. 1 (ca. 1780s) Mi-re-Do u 2 ju 4 # 4X XX X X jXX v X a X X w u jX j X {X u J XX X X v X &# XJ X X wvu X J X a wv X X x & 4w vu { u{ X X X XXX X X 24 X ## 4 X X XX X XXJ J ?4 ? 5 w 116 mi-re-do v u do-re-mi { 4 75 11 3 4 5 1 If a composer opted for the cadenza composta—two s, with the second one an octave He presents a Do-Re-Mi theme with a pacing of two beats per stage, and then closes, at a lower—it was still possible to employ the – – melody, though would often be shifted faster pace, with a Mi-Re-Do melody fitted above the semplice bass. At the quarter-note to align with the bass’s first as in this minuet by violinist Pierre Gaviniés (1728–1800): Compound ex. 11.6 pacing, the – – ending is obvious. Among the subsidiary patterns at an eighth-note pacing are descending thirds, – and – , as well as ascending seconds, – and – , Gaviniés, Opusignificant melodic Tempo dEven at a sixteenth-note pacing, the initiation all of which are s 3, no. 5, mvt. 2, gestures. i Minuetto, m. 29 (1764) of a rapid descending scale from a dissonant tone (the grace note F 5, which is performed M noting for later as a sixteenth note) above the bass’s is worth i-Re-Do reference. w v Mi-Re-Do u X X X X X X X X X X X X X X w «v u X X X. bb 3 X &8 X. 3 X. X b8 X X. ?b X 5 29 29 7 1 4 5 1 e x . 1 1. 8 Salieri, La fiera di Venezia, “Mio caro Adone,” Andante, m. 13 (1772) descending hexachord z XXX XX xw # 3 z. X &4 £ #3 ¥ 4 E. X X & 4 v u X X X X X X w «v u ¥ XX X X XX XXX X X ¥X ¥ ?X X X X X E. 55 1 prinner 13 e x . 1 1. 9 y Mi-Re-Do y. 4 3 Mozart, Var. on a theme by Salieri (KV300e), Var. 6, Allegretto, m. 13 (1773) descending hexachord z y x wvu X X X X X Xu X{ X Xu XX X # 2 #X z X X #X y X X X X X X X z 4 yx & w #2 a j X X 3X X 2 X X1 XX & 4 X X X X #X X X X X J 5 p r i n n er 13 4 3 3 4 1 e x . 1 1.1 2 Cudworth’s cadence galante (1949) cudworth u { zyx wv ## 3 X 4J & ## 3 X 4J ? 3 kX X XX X X X X 4 5 X X u 5 1 X E. E. Many features of the Cudworth cadence have already been discussed, such as its initiation of a rapid scalar descent from a dissonance ( ) over in the bass, its coordination of the melodic – over the two s in the compound bass (the “cadential 6/4”), and (though not in Cudworth’s own example) the frequent use of a trill on . So it is closely related to the other types of standard cadences. But the salience of the melody rising to the high before hurtling down to the final was such that a Cudworth cadence tended to serve as a main cadence placed at the end of an entire movement or at least a large section. Because numerous instances of the Cudworth cadence will be found throughout this book, it is unnecessary to provide more examples here. But it may be useful to highlight some special cases. Like other cadences, the Cudworth cadence can be nested within a larger progression, as in the example below by Tartini (ex. 11.13). A descending scale – – – – is both interrupted and then completed by the Cudworth cadence. The dotted brace indicates the weaker initial articulation that Tartini’s passage shares with those of Gaviniés and Schobert presented earlier. e x . 1 1.13 Tartini, Opus 6, no. 4, mvt. 1, Adagio, m. 17 (Paris, ca. 1748) maestros Carlo Cotumacci (ca. 1709–1785)9 and Nicola Sala,10 show that essentially the same bass and figures were used in both the major and the minor modes: e x . 1 1.17 Cotumacci, from a partimento in C minor, m. 27 (Naples) deceptive 6 5 b4 X X ?b 4 27 6 n X 345 e x . 1 1.18 complete 6 5 n X 4 bX X 3 5 X 6 6! 3 ? X X 6 6 5 3 45 ## 4 X 4 U D 1 Sala, from a partimento in D major, m. 39 (Naples) deceptive 39 U E 3 complete X 5 X 6 6! 3 X 6 5 X 3 45 U w 1 Other departures from expectation fell under the rubrics of “avoided” or “evaded” cadences, terms that were used interchangeably. A second partimento by Cotumacci shows how a cadence ending on in the bass, rather than , evaded full closure and, like the deceptive cadence, required a second, successful attempt at cadencing (my exclamation point marks the point of evasion):11 e x . 1 1.19 Cotumacci, from a partimento in E minor, m. 27 (Naples) e x . 1 1. 27 Barbella, Six Solos, no. 4, mvt. 3, Presto, m. 63 (London, 1765) pulcinella . Chapter 11 ec lausulae . . Dec ptive pulcinella55 . . complete . 1 X . 11.28, from X .ardini’s Opus 5 v. iolin sonatas,Xb.elieved written.in «orthernX . « « X« « Xn present example 3 b IbItaly oXAustria. NXardini sets a dN X X PulcinellaXtwice with scintillating harmonicXclashes, X X X XX X eceptive & 8r w w w executesw adenza-like sX that touches the high A5 w begins the w aXc olo dX o X X X X and X X X Xescent Xf theXhX X- X X X 40) beforeX initiating X Cudworth cXadence. X e gives that Cudworth cadence aX X X X XX a XX X X exa chord (m. H b3 X X XX b deceptive bass and an evaded melody (m. 43), which leads to a varied repeat of the small 8 ? u 63 63 u u u u u cadenza. Nardini finally closes with a complete and emphatic Cudworth cadence in the lower register. 3 6 5 4 4 3 wv X « XXX X X XXXXX X X 5 u 1 Nardini, Opus 5wno.musicallyArelated t.o3B(1769) through connections with the violin school Nardini , as 4, mvt. 3, llegro, m 2 arbella ex. 11.28 of maestro Tartini at Padua. To show that the Pulcinella cadence was used beyond Naples, pulcinella . . . Deceptive pulcinella . . . deceptive w uy w uy w uy w uy w uy w uy w uy w u # # 3 X X X X X X XX X XX X XX X X X X XX X X X X X & 4X XXX XXX XXX XX X XXX XXX XXX X 6 6 6 6 6 6 4 6 # # 3 X ¥ X X ¥ X X ¥ X X ¥ X X ¥ X X ¥ X 4 ¥ X X ¥ 6X X ?4 32 32 3 z 4 y xw 6 5 4 3 cudworth z y 63 cudworth wv u X X # X X nX X X X X X XX X ## X X X #X X XE X X X # X X X X jX £ « X & X X X XX X X E . { £6# 6 X X 4 z!y x w ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ X X X # 4 ## X ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ X X XX X ? X6 X E.{ 6 1 40 40 4 wv u X E 5 45 5 prinner xw 1 45 1 5 e x . 1 1 . 25 Pasquali, Opus 1, no. 2, mvt. 2, Menuet, m. 7 (London, 1744) half cadence X X X X X wjv ## 3 X XX &8 7 ? ## 3 8 X 3 X 4 5 X a XXXX { { Notice that, in relation to the standard cadence, the half cadence is shifted metrically forward so that , rather than , falls on a downbeat (the sixteenth notes in the bass of measure 8 lead back to D major the first time and to E minor the second time). That is, although the half cadence has long been described as deriving its effect from an incomplete harmonic pattern, the difference in metrical scansion may be equally important. Later in the century it became fashionable for a half cadence to have a trill on . As shown in example 11.26 by Pietro Nardini (1722–1793), some forms of the half cadence no longer relied on the standard bass but leaped directly from to . might liken the complete cadence to a period at the end of a sentence, and the half cadence to a colon or question mark. For the weaker articulation afforded by a comma I suggest the Soprano cadence mild close in this brief example by Mozart (see chap. 16 for the entire movement): ex. 11.29 Mozart, Sonata in C Major (KV545), mvt. 1, Allegro, m. 4 (1788) 4 &4 4 4 &4 y X comma «Xx X X w X ¥ XXXXXXX X 7 1 The – ascent in the bass and the coordinated descent of – – (or just – ) in the melody create a small inflection that, like a comma, sets off a syntactical unit from what will come next. It its larger context, Mozart’s Comma formed the end of a Prinner. It could equally well have formed any unit in a Monte, the second, major-mode unit of a Fonte, or the close of a Meyer, Jupiter, or Pastorella. But the Comma was not limited to forming a component of larger schemata. It could also stand on its own. I first read Manfredini’s simile that “music, like verbal discourse, has . . . its punctuation marks” during a visit to the Milan Conservatory Library in 2003. It prompted my selection of “comma,” “colon,” and “period” as reasonable analogues for the cadence-types discussed above (colon = half cadence, period = complete cadence). Two years later, in reading a discussion of cadences by Manfredini’s contemporary Francesco Galeazzi (see chap. 29), I was both surprised and heartened to see nearly the same words applied to the e x . 1 1 . 25 Pasquali, Opus 1, no. 2, mvt. 2, Menuet, m. 7 (London, 1744) half cadence X X X X X wjv ## 3 X XX &8 a 7 ? ## 3 8 e x . 1 1 .35 X X 5 4 3 XXXX X { { A simplified Converging cadence Notice that, in relation to the standard cadence, the half cadence is shifted metrically forward so that , rather than , falls onvedownbeat (the sixteenth notes in the bass of a con rging measure 8 lead back to D major the first time and to E minor the second time). That is, w v u { although the half cadence has long been described as deriving its effect from an incomplete harmonic pattern, the difference in metrical scansion may be equally important. Later in the century it became fashionable for a half cadence to have a trill on . As shown in example 11.26 by Pietro Nardini (1722–1793), some forms of the half cadence no longer relied on the standard bass but leaped 4 directly from to . 5 4 4¥ &4 4¥ ?4 X X 3 X X X #X # E E ¥ ¥ – , a “High e x . 1 1.39 Drop” as shown in the following two, florid examples: Cimarosa, Sonata in C (C56), Allegro, m. 9 (ca. 1780s) converging 3 XXXXXX &8 9 3X ?8 e x . 1 1. 4 0 X J 3 X xwvu { XXXX X X X #X #4 4 XXX X j X 5 Clementi, Opus 5, no. 2, mvt. 2, Presto, m. 118 (ca. 1780s) XX bb 2 J b4 & ? zy X X J a u bb 2 a X X X a J b4 3 converging z X X 4 X X u n{ XX xv #X #4 X 5 ¥ X nX X Johann Joachim Quantz (1697–1773), in his treatise on playing the flute (1752; see chap. 28), mentions that this descending -to- pattern “occurs very frequently before caesuras.”18 Regarding the Converging cadence, the above two examples closely match Quantz’s precepts for decorating a “plain” High Drop. Cimarosa’s cadence, example 11.39, conforms to Quantz’s dictum that “six notes proceeding by step may be used to fill out and the melody ascends a half step, the result was a clausula vera21 or “true close,” as in this example from a quartet by Galuppi (see chap. 15 for the complete movement): e x . 1 1 . 43 Galuppi, Concerto a quattro in B Major, mvt. 1, Grave sostenuto, m. 24 (ca. 1750s) clausula vera X X XXXXX b2 X b4 X X X nX & z 24 ? b2 X b4 X 2 { u XX @ nX K j X 1 Galuppi was in charge of all music at Saint Mark’s basilica in Venice, and his predecessors in that illustrious position included masters of Renaissance counterpoint like Willaert, Rore, and Zarlino. For them, the above cadence would have been a C-cadence, as the scale-degree markings indicate. But by Galuppi’s time the meaning of the cadence had altered, and it was used to close on a dominant chord within a larger tonic key. Thus while the above Clausula Vera represents a moment’s pause and focus on the C-major chord, it shares with the half and Converging cadences its balance between two closely related hexa- be seen in the excerpt below by Durante (ex. 11.44). Modern ears find it very difficult to hear the C chord at the end of Durante example as a keynote, so I have marked the scale degrees of the Phrygian cadence in terms of the global key of F minor, and in particular as involving the two lower bass tones of the Phrygian tetrachord. ex. 11.4 4 Durante, Studio no. 5, m. 7 (Naples, 1747) clausula vera phrygian b b 4 a b X X X X XX X X E b 4 X X X X nX X E & b X X X X X b E X X X X nX X XX E u {u wxy aXX X X « XXXXE X X X bX X X X X X E bb 4 E E E b4 ? b7 2 1 b6 5 7 phrygian tetrachord The stepwise descent of the bass through a Phrygian tetrachord, with the upper voice descending in parallel a tenth higher, was often used as a minor-mode analogue of the modulating Prinner. In the case of Durante’s passage, even though his Phrygian cadence ends with a C-major chord (which modern ears will likely hear as the dominant chord in the key of F minor), he sets the ensuing phrases in the key of C minor. Again, the tonal plasticity of the galant schemata was great, especially earlier in the century. If the discant voice of the Phrygian cadence, just before ascending to the octave, is chromatically raised a half step, its distance from the bass becomes an augmented sixth, three attempts at a complete cadence. Flute and then violin first try to close separately, but their way seems blocked by the so-called Neapolitan sixth (D , marked as 6 in the thoroughbass). Their third, combined attempt ultimately succeeds after surmounting a deceptive cadence: Quantz, Trio Sonata in G minor, mvt. 3, Siciliana, m. 22 (ca. 1750s) e x . 1 1. 4 6 wbv! X Mi-Re-do X. 2j b b 18 X & b 1violan ¥ . 2i b8 &n 22 flute 4 2 2J b 18 X X ?b 6 43 passo indietro Mi-Re-do Mi-Re-do . . . Decep. complete X b X w. X v u X { X u. . J X X X J nX X b X . X nX X . aaX JED j X . X wbbv! X X X . nX X X X . nX nX X b X aaj j2 J X X j E1 X. b6 n 4 6 b6 n4 6 b 6 5 b 5 n b2 n bX 4 2 XX XX XX J X XX J J D. J J jj X bX X X . E. 65 44 44 45 5 3 passo indietro 3 4 passo indietro From Walther’s point of view, at the end of this passage the melody-bass framework provides the “most complete close” or clausula perfectissima while the discant-tenor framework (here, flute-violin) provides a simultaneous Clausula Vera or clausula tenorizans. 1 172 m usic in the galant style Daube, General-Bass in drey Accorden, twelve ways of modulating (1756) e x . 1 1.5 2 Perfecta / Mi-re-do 2E E & 2E E Perfectissima / do-si-do v. E Xu E X X #w w 6 7 # 5 5 E3 E # 5 3 2D E ?2 E E 1 Cantizans / jommelli 3w &2 w z 5 3 E E w E #w w 5 # 3 E E #E ?2 w 5 3 w 1 7 Tenorizans / claus. vera & ? u X{ u E E E #X # w EE w #6 # 7 3 w E 2 w 1 Cantizans / long comma E Ex EE E &E E 6 #E 6 5 #w w w # w u w #w # E# w E 5 3 25 E #E E {6 6 #4 5 E 2 4 E D 1 w E w 4 3 E w 1 E #w 6 5 E w E3 # E E w w 2 1 #w w w E #E # # E 7 5 E 6 z w 1 E E E #E y #w w # 7 5 3 w 1 7 [ converging ] E w Xv u E #X #E # w EE w 8 76 5 55 ## EE Cantizans / jommelli w E E #w w # # 8 5 4 3 xE 8 5 3 #E w 7 E E w #w u Imperfecta / incomplete E #w Eu w # 6 xw 5 3 3 Cantizans / comma y Eu E { E E #E E 7 #6 5 E E Altizans / passo indietro y 7 5 3 7 7 5 7 5 3 E D w 45 Eu E { E E #E E Tenorizans / claus. vera [ converging ] 2w 2E E 2D E z w EE #E E 6 5 yx EE #w 7 ## E w #w w # w Mozart, Piano Sonata in C major, K. 545, first movement (1788) 455 a ppendix a: schema prototypes The Prinner The Prinner (see chap. 3) was often used as the riposte or answer to an opening gambit. Its period of greatest currency was the 1720s to the 1770s, though it remained an option throughout the century. The presence of a Prinner riposte is one of the best indications of a musical style grounded in the Italian galant. Strong z 5 3 4 Weak y 6 3 3 Strong v x Weak w 7-6 3 5 3 2 1 5 Robert Gjerdingen, Music in the Galant Style (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), 455 5 3 6 3 6 3 6 3 5 3 6 3 6 3 5 3 1 2345678 f igu r e b .1 A first approximation of the Rule of the Octave Robert Gjerdingen, Music in the Galant Style (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), 468 ...
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