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Class 28 presentation 2011

Class 28 presentation 2011 - Durante Partimento diminuto in...

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Unformatted text preview: Durante, Partimento diminuto in A in the melody and do–si–do ( – – ) in the bass: e x . 6 .1 1 Leclair, Opus 1, no. 3, mvt. 2, Allegro, m. 1 (1723) bb 2 &4 ? b2 b4 u « X XX X X ¥ Do-re-mi « X XX X X X ¥ « X v 1 ex. 6.2 7 w X XXj X X a 1 Leclair, Opus 1, no. 3, mvt. 4, Allegro ma non troppo, m. 1 (1723) As the example implies, the schema’s first and last stages feature stable tonic chords Do- of i i while the middle stage, with a mi-degree (see chap. 2)Re-Mn the bass, sounds a less stable 6/3 or 6/5/3. In abstract form, the schema could be represented as shown in figure 6.1. Romanesca b2 X b2 X & 2X X bb 2 ? 17 X X 6 XXX XX X X X 3 4 5 cadence « X j X 1 77 complex than the effect, which should be evident in example 6.3: bb 6 a X X X X X &8 u 5 3 b 6 X. ?b 8 1 X. Do-re-mi XXXXXX v 5 X. h 1 Leclair, Opus 1, no. 11, mvt. 3, Allegro, m. 1 (1723) 2 w X XX X. 6 3 X. 5 3 7 1 h e x . 6 .3 = dissonance = consonance In his study of oral traditions in the epic poetry of the Balkans, Albert Lord pointed to “enjambment” as one mark of a literary, learned style.2 Enjambment means that an individual poetic line is not an autonomous and self-contained unit; its syntax or sense overlaps the next line or lines. In contrast to literary poetic traditions, oral traditions often avoid enjambment because an improvising bard has greater freedom to mix and match good lines if they are self-contained and interchangeable. Suspensions obviously create small forms of musical enjambment, since they force one event to overlap another. But Leclair also favored larger forms of enjambment where one schema either overlaps another or morphs into another. The following two musical examples are thus literary in the ways in which f Romanesca a o J. S. Bach, eachf (t1) embeds efromtheEnglishwoeSuite ain (2) Pverlaps Gigue lements tohe beginning of winhatn pening Dco-Re-Mi, Arinner, minor the close o he Do-Re-Mi with might all “false” leading to a cadence, and then (3) presents the “real” Prinner with great clarity. We thus e x . 6 .5 81 t he do-re-mi Chapter 6 Leclair, Opus 1, no. 4, mvt. 1, Adagio, m. 1 (1723) do-re-mi u Romanesca ## 4 X E & 4 @K u ? ## 4 a 4 w v u Prinner ? X XXX X X X X X a XXX X X X X X z u X XX X X X X X a X y XX XX X X XXX X 176 3 4 5 43 1 cadence Prinner y x w ## X a X j X .. X X X X XX X X X X XX X X X X X XX X j X X XX X XX & X X J4 XX 3 z 3 ? ## X XXX X X 6 5 X X XX X X 2 3 6 5 2 1 XXXXX X X a 2 3 2 3 6 5 3 2 A contemporary of Leclair referred to his Opus 1 as “a kind of algebra capable of rebuffing the most courageous musicians.”3 The general t aste for complexities of the type favored by Leclair’s own generation (J. S. Bach, Handel, Domenico Scarlatti, Rameau, Marcello, e x . 6 .7 Wodiczka, Opus 1, no. 1, mvt. 2, Allegro ma non troppo, m. 1 (Paris, 1739) do-re-mi do-re-mi v v u u 4 bbbb 4 j X. X nX X X X X. X. X X X X X X. & 4 XX &4j X X 4 J j bbbb 4 aa a X X X a X X X 4 ?4 ? 1 1 5 do--re-mi do re-m bbbb & & 3 3 bbbb ? ? e x . 6 .7 X X X. X. j XXXX j X XX XXXXX w w cadence v« « « ££ X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X XjX X a J X XX XX X X X X X ChapterX6 tX do-re-mi he 83 X X XX X aa j X X a X X X J X X XXX X X v u u (continued) 1 1 5 w 1 5 34 1 Prinner X . X X. X. XnX. . jy . . j . . X . z jX j bb jzXX X. X. jX X X. X. X XXX## XX X X X n X X X XX X X X X bb & & J bb XX X X X a nX X X a XXXaX J bb J ? ? 5 5 4 4 bbbb & & bbbb ? ? X¥ 3 4 51 1 cadence 7 7 Xaj X 3 7 . .... jX X X Xj X X X X . X XnX X X X j X jX XXX X X . .X X . . J aa X X X a X X X a j v v x x 2 2 5 z wX . X J 1 4 X X. X.nX X. . X £ XX 6 Prinner . X. y x w XnX XX XX . . X.X . X j . X jnX . X X X X nX X y 1 The Do-Re-Mi remained a staple throughout the eighteenth century. If we turn to keyboard sonatas by Domenico Cimarosa (1749–1801), one of the premier opera compos- XX Cimarosa, Sonata C48, Allegro, m. 1 (ca. 1780s) ex. 6.8 X X XX XX XX XX 4 4 84 4 ?4 ? 4 4 4 &4 & 1 1 w uw u 1 16 . 8 ex. yX yX X X X X XX XX XX XX X zX X X X X X zX X X X X X XX X X XXXX X XX X XX X do-re-mi d o - r e- m i x vx v XX XX X X wy wy X X XX XXX XXX X X XXX XXX XX Xgalant styleX X X X X XX m usic in the XXXXXX 1 1 7 7 (continued) 4 4 1 1 Prinner Prinner do-re-mii do-re-m 71 71 X X xX X X X X X X Xx X X X X X w X XX X w X X XX X XXXX XXX XXXXX X X XK K & X X XXXXX & XXXXXXXX XXXXXXX XXXXX X X XXXXK K ? ? 5 3 32 2 3 3 2 2 5 1 1 u u v v w w In the second example from the same set of keyboard works, Cimarosa lengthens his Do-Re-Mi to five measures and follows it with a four-measure Prinner riposte, again maintaining a rough parity between them. e x . 6 .1 0 “Adeste Fidelis” do-re-mi 4X E &4 u 86 v E X X y y E w XXXX m usic in the galant style Do-Re-Mi. Instead of three events, one could have four—do–re . . . re–mi ( – E X ... – ). Ad A-s might be expected,-W- del f- - is, a clear eae - tehatrias affinities tpthe ndeste s es - - te fi odiczka urnishes lxample t t h - um - - o ha A - te Fidelis variant: Meyer’s observation certainly applies to Cimarosa. Both of the preceding examples use the e x . 6 .1 2 Wodiczka, Opus 1, no. 2, mvt. 3, Menuetto, m. 1 (1739) Adeste Fidelis variant, with its leaps to and from . The consistency with which Cimarosa presents the combination of Do-Re-Mi with bre added e-mi thirds and lower Adeste do- oth . . . r upper Fidelis leaps suggests that he considered this a unitary package—a Gestalt. And because w Cimarosa was a u product of the conservatory system in Nv it also suggests that this aples, v 3 X «. XX X X E X «. XX X X E X X & 4over a bass that clearly invites this type of Do-Re-Mi (treble-staff realization the melody X mine): X E X 3E ¥ X X¥ 4 ? X e x . 6 .1 1 Zingarelli, from a partimento in D Major, Allegro molto, m. 1 (ca. 1790s) y y nexus of patterns was something t aught there. For example, a partimento by Zingarelli, j Cimarosa’s classmate in Naples, calls for prima posizione and hence a starting in X 1 5 5 1 5 1 do-re-mi 1 ## More than fifty years later, this paired Do-Re-Mi was still popular enough for Mozart to use it in his D-major horn concerto. Note how closely Mozart preserves the schematic norm represented by Wodiczka, even though Mozart adds a lovely one-beat delay of the final and bridges his two subsections with a thematically significant bass: prima pos: w 4u y XX X 4 XE X X & X e x . 6 .13 v X XE XX y XX w X X X XXXX XX x y X XX XX X X XX XX X Mozart, Horn Concerto (KV386b), mvt. 1, Allegro, m. 1 (1791) 65 X X final and bridges his two subsections with a thematically significant bass: Mozart, Horn Concerto (KV386b), mvt. 1, Allegro, m. 1 (1791) e x . 6 .13 do-re . . . Re-mi ## 4 X. X X X X X X. X X X J X J &4 v u y ## 4 ¥ X ¥ D ?4 y X. X X X X X J XX ¥ the do-re-mi X ¥ D X 87 Chapter 6 5 XE w v 5 another keyboard work by Cimarosa, one sees how chromatic passing tones can be added to the paired Do-Re-Mi. Adding the same chromaticism to both halves of the schema enhances the musical rhyme. 1 XX ¥ 1 e x . 6 .1 4 ozart and Sonata C86,were masters of adding delicate touches to the melodies of the M Cimarosa, Cimarosa Andante grazioso, m. 12 (ca. 1780s) standard schemata. In their approach to the paired Do-Re-Mi in the major mode, it do-re . . . Re-mi appears that they both recognized the two ascending melodic whole steps as opportunities w for inserting matching chromatic v embellishments. In example 6.14, a short fragment from v h 1 7 7 #X h u b 4 @ y X X #X X @ y X X X b4 X & XXX XXX XXX b4 X nX X b4 ? 12 X XXX X 1 = chromatic embellishment The resulting network of patterns—a paired Do-Re-Mi schema with Adeste Fidelis leaps and matching chromatic passing tones—became very popular. Mozart used it in another of his horn concertos: another of his horn concertos: Mozart, Horn Concerto (KV447), mvt. 3, Allegro, m. 1 (ca. 1787) e x . 6 .15 do-re . . . Re-mi bb 6 b8 & v u v ja j X X X X h X j X X X X X X X nj X X X 6 a X. a a X X X X X X X X. a J bbb 8 ? y 5 1 e x . 6 .1 6 y 5 w XX jja X #X X h aj XXXXX X 1 Rossini, Il barbiere di Siviglia, Overture, Allegro, m. 68 (Rome, 1816) Note how the chromatic passing tones participate in the delay first of and then of — what François-Joseph Fétis called prolongations (1844)6—just as they did in theorevious. Re-mi d p-re . . example by Cimarosa. v u u XX E y #E X X . X X . X X . X X . X #E X. XX &c X X #c X J ? 1 5 & # X X aX J XX XX aXa X J J XX v E XX #X X ?J X X aX J XX X aX J 7 XX X aX J X X aXa J E XX XX XX aXa X JJ XX X aX J X @X JK X X jX X a Xa Xa Xa a XX X JJ Jj X X #E X# XX X ¥ ¥ X XX XX XX XX X a Xa X a Xa X a X XX XX J JJ JJ 1 7 w X . X X . X X . X X . Xv. X #E X X X X y X @X X ¥ #X X ¥ JK XX XX j XX X a X a X a X a X a XX a ja X a X XX aX X J JJ JJJ XX X 57 1 X Xa X J X Xa X J The Do- R e- M i The Do-Re-Mi (see chap. 6) was one of the most frequent opening gambits in galant music. It was used in every decade and in every genre. It often had its normal bass part in the upper voice and its “melody” in the bass. The ease with which it could be thus inverted made it a favorite schema for movements in which the bass begins with an imitation of the melody, a procedure especially common early in the eighteenth century. Strong u 5 3 1 Weak v 6 3 7 Strong w 5 3 1 Central Features • Three events equally spaced, or occasionally presented with an extended first stage. In brisk tempos, each event will likely fall on a downbeat. • In the melody, an emphasis on the stepwise ascent – – . Variants may include chromatic passing tones. • In the bass, an emphasis on – – (sometimes substitutes for ) • A sequence of chords in 5/3, 6/3, and 5/3 positions. Delaying the bass descent from to creates a dissonance during the second stage. Variants • An Adeste Fidelis type with a melody featuring leaps down to and up from • A two-part, “Do-Re . . . Re-Mi” type. . ...
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