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Class 33 presentation 2011

Class 33 presentation 2011 - The Quiescenza The...

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Unformatted text preview: The Quiescenza The Quiescenza (see chap. 13) marks a short period of quiescence following an important cadence at the end of an important section. As a framing device, it could also appear as an opening gambit (usually not repeated), though this usage was less common. The Quiescenza’s period of greatest currency was the 1760s to the 1790s, and it was especially favored in music written for Vienna or Paris. We a k } b Strong b7 3 6 4 1 1 We a k n n7 Strong 2 5 3 1 1 } Central Features • Four events, with the whole schema usually played twice in succession. • In the melody, the descending semitone – is answered by the ascending semitone – (in the “typical Italian solfeggio,” fa–mi is answered by mi–fa). • In the bass, a pedal point on , or a figuration that reiterates . • A sequence of four sonorities, usually 7/3, 6/4, 7/4/2, and 5/3. The first seems unstable in relation to the second, while the third sonority seems highly unstable in relation to the last, tonic sonority. Variants • A diatonic type with a rising – – – melody. • A rare type that presents two Prinners over a tonic pedal. e x . 13.3 J. S. Bach, Invention in B Major, m. 1 (Cöthen, ca. 1720) b{ z n{ X X X X X XXXXX XX XX X X X X X X XXXX X b b 4 @XXXXX XXXXX X b XXXX XX X J X bX X XXXXX &4 X X X XX X nX X X n{ uXXXX X X X X nX z X 4 X Xy X aXX a X XX ¥ ¥ ¥@ bb 4 ? 1 u 1 1 1 1 Domenico Scarlatti, Bach’s contemporary, had wide-ranging experiences in many of the great centers of galant music. He too wrote similar passages, but often performed them twice in succession in what seems to have been the fashion. Here is an example from a keyboard work in C major (K. 250). The passage appears immediately after an opening flourish and makes obvious its chromatic – – – melody: Bach, Allemande from Partita in B flat Bach indicates the standard thoroughbass figures of the Quiescenza: e x . 13.5 C. P. E. Bach, Versuch über m usicwahre galant style die in the Art das Clavier zu spielen, vol. 2, p. 123 186 (Berlin, 1762) The galant French violinists produced many of their finest works as “solo sonatas,” a misleading term describing duos for violin and continuo. The bass part was frequently ? ## 4 4 6 4 w 5 quiescenza # unfigured and so required the keyboard player to infer the proper harmonization from the context. This was not always easy. The iterated or tied in the bass of a Quiescenza, for 7 5 6 8 example, gave 8o overt clues to the different chords intended. When, as in example 13.8 n 7 4 3 4 3 by Gaviniés, the violin played double stops that clarify each chord, the keyboard player 2 could have read the harmony from the violin part. But in many other instances that might n not be possible. For example, a late solo sonata by Gaviniés includes a Quiescenza that, if the four stages presumably last for one quarter-note each, requires the keyboard player to introduce the and in advance of the violinist. In other words, the accompanist would need to know this “usual scene” beforehand in order to anticipate the harmonies. The version shown below is a likely realization with an added tenor voice. The complete printed tempo indication—Allegro con fuogo ma non troppo presto—hints that the work’s 1 galant schemata are being pressed into service for a more dynamic, Napoleonic-era musical aesthetic. e x . 13.9 1801) Gaviniés, Trois sonates pour le violon, no. 1, mvt. 3, Allegro . . . , m. 61 (Paris, n{u quiescenza b{z b{z n{ u quiescenza b b b b 2 X . X X X X X b X X X XXX nX jX . X XXXX b X X X X X X nX X X . X &4 X X. { n{ n{ b{ X X X b{ bX X bX X X X XX X X X XX X X bbbb 2 X X X X E X 4X XX E X X X X .. { ? 61 1 1 11 1 1 A galant composer could, of course, follow the example of Simon Leduc (l’aîné; 1742– 1777), a pupil of Gaviniés. Leduc also wrote solo sonatas with unfigured basses, but at the opening of his Opus 4 (1771) he placed the characteristic chromatic line of the Quiescenza in the bass so that the schema could not be missed (see ex. 13.10). The accompanist would still need to infer an inner voice, which could include an iterated for stages one, two, and four (the third stage—the chord over G 3—requires a in place of because the the same set (KV189h; ex. 13.19): e x . 13.18 Mozart, Sonata KV189f, mvt. 3, Allegro, m. 38 (1775) v u b{ quiescenza n{ z« E b 2 « X( b)« . E X nE . b2 & b2 X X X XXXX ¥ X E X X X X X b 2 X nX X X X. & E 38 1 e x . 13.19 11 u b{ n{ U E X nE . u 11 X ( b)« . E 1 z« ¥ E. ¥ E. X X X X XXXX XXXX XXXX E 1 Mozart, Sonata KV189h, mvt. 1, Allegro, m. 51 (1775) quiescenza #3 X &4 b{ nu z{ a ( n) X X # X XXX X X X #X X X X X X X X #3 X X X ?4 51 quiescenza X X X quiescenza a b{ ( n) X X X nu z #{ X XX XX X X X¥ { X #X X X X X X X X X X X X ¥{ 11 1 1 11 1 1 194 m usic in the galant style e x . 13.23 Beethoven, Opus 24, “Spring,” mvt. 1, Allegro, m. 193 (1802) XX 1 &b ¥ 200 b{ XX b XXXX XXX z XX X X X Xb XXXXXXX X XXXX XX bX X bX E E E bE E E E E E E E E E E X E X E X X XE X XE X X X X XXXX X XX XXX b c X XX XX XX & XX X. X E XX XXv. k Xu ¥ & b c E X .. X X E b cX X X X E ?XX 1 n{ 197 b XXXXX X X X X X X X X X X X & XE X b X bE XE XX & X X bX X X X ?X X 193 quiescenza X E E E E 1 u X 1 E E quiescenza ¥X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X bX X X X X X X bX X XXX X X b{ E X bE X E X E X E X X E X XE X X X 1 1 ¥ bX b Xz y X xX wnX @ X X X X b X X X X X X X n{X X b X X X X X b X b X u z bX X X X X X X b X X X X X X nk &b XXX E X bX E X XX X X E X X XX X XX X X X X nX K bX ? X X 1 1 as in Salieri’s example. The melody eventually provides the closing – , again as in Salieri’s example. But a trait that clearly distinguishes the mature Mozart from Salieri is the 195 Chapter 13 t he quiescenza e x . 13.2 4 Mozart, Sonata (KV315c), mvt. 3, Allegretto grazioso, m. 212 (1783–84) « E v bb 4 &4 212 12 u X quiescenza b{ n{ bX . X X X X X X X X X X J aJ X XX XX ¥ ¥ aX J fenaroli b{ z b4 b 4 XX X X X X b X X X X X X X X X X XX X X X X X X X X & X XX XX XX XX X 1 1 1 b{ quiescenza X # X X b X . X X X XX XX X «. X X X a X X b X X X X nX J b & £b { z b¥ b X X X X b XX XX XX X X X X XX &X X 217 u 1 1 fenaroli 1 n{ u XX X X X X X a XX XX X X XX XX X X 1 example, the embedded Fenaroli alternates dominant and tonic chords every quarter note. Mozart seems to have delighted in this sort of play, and some connoisseurs of his time doubtless found the effect stimulating. But the complexity was not to everyone’s t aste. We 1 a Opening Middle ( Processual) Closing Dynamic Fonte, Monte, Half, Romanesca, Ponte, Modulating Converging, and Do-Re-Mi, Prinner (bass Evaded Sol-Fa-Mi starts on 1) Cadences Static Simple, Meyer, Do- Regular Prinner Compound, and Re:Re-Mi, (bass starts on 4), Double Sol-Fa:Fa-Mi Fenaroli Cadences, Quiescenza Dance forms (March—Minuet—Bourrée—Gavotte— Contredanse— Siciliano—Gigue—Sarabande—Waltz) Topoi: registers (French Overture—Military/Hunting — “Turkish”—ombra—Pastoral/Musette); and modalities (cantabile—Strict—Brilliant—Sturm und Drang —Empfindsamkeit—Fantasia) ...
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