{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

Class 34 presentation 2011

Class 34 presentation 2011 - Friedrich Daube(1756 is...

Info icon This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Friedrich Daube (1756) is valuable as a sign that galant simplifications of musical syntax had begun to influence conceptions of the tonal system.3 Daube’s General-Bass in drey Accorden [Thoroughbass in Three Chords] drew attention, as Rameau had earlier in France (1722), to the central roles of three distinct sonorities: a 6/5 chord above in the bass, a seventh chord above , and a simple triad above . Though Daube oversimplified galant practice for his readership of amateur musicians, as we saw in chapter 11, it is nevertheless true that one can produce a typical galant cadence using only these three sonorities: e x . 2 0 .1 Daube’s “three chords” (1756) set as a cadence & ? XX X 6 5 X X X X X 7 X X X 5 3 X ¥ ¥ 273 Gjerdingen, 273 The Indugio The Indugio (It., “tarrying” or “lingering”; see chap. 20) served as a teasing delay of the approach to a Converging cadence. Uncommon in the first half of the eighteenth century, it quickly became a cliché in the second half. For compositions in the major mode, the Indugio allowed, as does the Fonte, the insertion of a brief passage in the minor mode. Often associated with this “darkening” are “storm and stress” syncopations. Strong Strong x v . .. 6 5 4 z Weak u 6 5 6 5 4 4 6 5 #4 Strong { 5 3 5 Central Features • Several events, leading up to a Converging cadence in most instances. The pair of open lozenges above, with the three dots of ellipsis, indicates an open-ended repetition of the opening sonority or figuration. • The bass features iterations of leading to , often with an inflection to just prior to . • The melody usually emphasizes , , and , with frequent approaches to these tones from below by way of chromatic leading tones. • A prolongation of the 6/5/3 sonority above in the bass, ending with a 5/3 sonority on that is optionally the dominant of the main key or the tonic of the new key. Variants • A more diatonic type without the bass’s . • A passing-6/4 type with a more active bass that passes stepwise up and down between and . When passing through , a 6/4 sonority helps to maintain iterations on , which may act as an internal pedal point. Gjerdingen, 464 (a simple triad on ). What I call “the Indugio”—so named because it signals a playful t arrying or lingering (It., indugiare) that delays the arrival of a cadence—was a schema for extending and focusing on the first type of sonority, a 6/3 or 6/5/3 chord on . To show the Indugio in a typical setting, I have selected a passage from one of the many undated keyboard works by Cimarosa (ex. 20.2). The movement in question began in B major but at this point has already modulated to the dominant key, F major: ex. 20.2 bb 4 &4 21 7 X XXX nX Cimarosa, Sonata C78, Allegro brioso, m. 21 (ca. 1780s) X X X 1XXXX X X fenaroli X 2XXX X X X X X X 3X X X X X X 1 3 XX X X X XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X XXX X n X X X X X X X nX X X X X X X X X X X X X X b4 ?b 4 x w { indugio 25 & u XzXXX XnX X { v X X XX X X vX X X X X X v X X XX X XX X XX X v XX XX X u b X # X X X XX X # X X X XX X # X X X X X# X nX nX b x X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X nX X X bX XXXX¥ X X XX X¥ X XXXXX XX X X XX XX X X X ?b #4 5 4 4 4 34 converging Cimarosa first presents a four-measure Fenaroli in F major. In the Fenaroli’s last measure (m. 24), its bass moves from to , which often indicates the beginning of a cadence. Measure 25 would thus likely have begun a one- or two-measure cadence had not an Indugio delayed the cadence for several extra measures (mm. 25–28). Moreover, the Indugio leads into a Converging cadence on C, which can be heard either as the new tonic key or as the dominant of F major. Cimarosa’s example presents many of the hall- features the common agitato syncopations in the melody: ex. 20.4 Cimarosa, Sonata C70, Andantino, m. 8 (ca. 1780s) X X X X XX X bbb 4 X X X X X X X b b4 & 6 6 X X X4 X X4 X XX X X X bbb 4 X ?b b 4 8 i nd u g i o X X nX X X X X X X X X b X X X X XX XXX bbb X X bb & 6 6 X X4 X X4 X XXXXX bbb ?b b 9 X X X X X nX # X converging The second one, in B major (ex. 20.5), presents only the two outer voices, with the inner-voice pedal point implied. This Indugio is likewise slightly syncopated and includes a chromatic leading tone (B ) to . As in the previous example, I have added the figures “6/4” to highlight the placement of that sonority—the figures are not present in the early manuscripts or prints. This second example of the passing-6/4 variant also shows the less common option of the Indugio not proceeding to a Converging cadence. Instead the ? X ex. 20.9 Wanhal, Quartet in C Major (C1), mvt. 1, Allegro, m. 18 (1773) meyer prinner X X #X X X XXXX XXE 18 XXXXXX 4 X X X X X X X X XX X X X X X X X X X X X X XXXXXXX X XXX X & 4 nX X X X X 4 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X #X ?4 X X XX . & XXXXXX XXXXXX 22 ?X ¥ D X #X XX XX indugio X X X . X XXXXXX XXXXXX X ¥D X #X XX XX X X X XX XX XX XXX X X X X X X ¥ kX X X XXXXX X X XXXXX X X XX XX X X XXXX X X. X n) X X X X X # X( # X X X X X X X # X X EX XXXXXXXX # X ¥¥X X¥ Mozart, Piano Sonata in C major, K. 545, first movement (1788) Mozart, Overture to The Magic Flute (1791) schema. The program notes for a 2003 London recital by Artur Pizarro broadcast on the BBC mention that “the Sonata opens with a striking harmonic idea that begins on an ambiguous added-sixth chord and does not reach the tonic until the sixth bar.”6 The courtly schema thus fades into a harmonic curiosity. e x . 2 0 .13 Beethoven, Opus 31, no. 3, mvt. 1, Allegro, m. 1 (Vienna, 1802) indugio z v z v bbb 3 X . XX ¥ X . XX ¥ & 4E E E E p E E b b 3 EE ¥ EE ¥ b 4E E ? b 4 4 v #v ritardando... X XX XX b E ... XXX E X E cresc... X X X nE .. XXX E #4 4 U nE .. E. E S nE ... E E u w bX X X XXX XXX bX X X XXX nX X X 5 mi-re-do v a tempo XX X X p X X 5 u X X X nX X X k X XX X XX X X X X X X 1 The gradual transition from a galant to a more bourgeois music culture accelerated during the final decades of the eighteenth century. Obviously the revolution of 1789, which led to a crisis for French aristocrats and the bishops of the Church, created a concomitant crisis for the many musicians whom they supported. The unfortunate Anton Stamitz, one ...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}