Class 34 - Friedrich Daube(1756 is valuable as a sign that galant simplifications of musical syntax had begun to influence conceptions of the

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Unformatted text preview: Friedrich Daube (1756) is valuable as a sign that galant simplifications of musical syntax had begun to influence conceptions of the tonal system.3 Daube’s General-Bass in drey Accorden [Thoroughbass in Three Chords] drew attention, as Rameau had earlier in France (1722), to the central roles of three distinct sonorities: a 6/5 chord above in the bass, a seventh chord above , and a simple triad above . Though Daube oversimplified galant practice for his readership of amateur musicians, as we saw in chapter 11, it is nevertheless true that one can produce a typical galant cadence using only these three sonorities: e x . 2 0 .1 Daube’s “three chords” (1756) set as a cadence & ? XX X 6 5 X X X X X 7 X X X 5 3 X ¥ ¥ 273 Gjerdingen, 273 The Indugio The Indugio (It., “tarrying” or “lingering”; see chap. 20) served as a teasing delay of the approach to a Converging cadence. Uncommon in the first half of the eighteenth century, it quickly became a cliché in the second half. For compositions in the major mode, the Indugio allowed, as does the Fonte, the insertion of a brief passage in the minor mode. Often associated with this “darkening” are “storm and stress” syncopations. Strong Strong x v . .. 6 5 4 z Weak u 6 5 6 5 4 4 6 5 #4 Strong { 5 3 5 Central Features • Several events, leading up to a Converging cadence in most instances. The pair of open lozenges above, with the three dots of ellipsis, indicates an open-ended repetition of the opening sonority or figuration. • The bass features iterations of leading to , often with an inflection to just prior to . • The melody usually emphasizes , , and , with frequent approaches to these tones from below by way of chromatic leading tones. • A prolongation of the 6/5/3 sonority above in the bass, ending with a 5/3 sonority on that is optionally the dominant of the main key or the tonic of the new key. Variants • A more diatonic type without the bass’s . • A passing-6/4 type with a more active bass that passes stepwise up and down between and . When passing through , a 6/4 sonority helps to maintain iterations on , which may act as an internal pedal point. Gjerdingen, 464 (a simple triad on ). What I call “the Indugio”—so named because it signals a playful t arrying or lingering (It., indugiare) that delays the arrival of a cadence—was a schema for extending and focusing on the first type of sonority, a 6/3 or 6/5/3 chord on . To show the Indugio in a typical setting, I have selected a passage from one of the many undated keyboard works by Cimarosa (ex. 20.2). The movement in question began in B major but at this point has already modulated to the dominant key, F major: ex. 20.2 bb 4 &4 21 7 X XXX nX Cimarosa, Sonata C78, Allegro brioso, m. 21 (ca. 1780s) X X X 1XXXX X X fenaroli X 2XXX X X X X X X 3X X X X X X 1 3 XX X X X XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X XXX X n X X X X X X X nX X X X X X X X X X X X X X b4 ?b 4 x w { indugio 25 & u XzXXX XnX X { v X X XX X X vX X X X X X v X X XX X XX X XX X v XX XX X u b X # X X X XX X # X X X XX X # X X X X X# X nX nX b x X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X nX X X bX XXXX¥ X X XX X¥ X XXXXX XX X X XX XX X X X ?b #4 5 4 4 4 34 converging Cimarosa first presents a four-measure Fenaroli in F major. In the Fenaroli’s last measure (m. 24), its bass moves from to , which often indicates the beginning of a cadence. Measure 25 would thus likely have begun a one- or two-measure cadence had not an Indugio delayed the cadence for several extra measures (mm. 25–28). Moreover, the Indugio leads into a Converging cadence on C, which can be heard either as the new tonic key or as the dominant of F major. Cimarosa’s example presents many of the hall- features the common agitato syncopations in the melody: ex. 20.4 Cimarosa, Sonata C70, Andantino, m. 8 (ca. 1780s) X X X X XX X bbb 4 X X X X X X X b b4 & 6 6 X X X4 X X4 X XX X X X bbb 4 X ?b b 4 8 i nd u g i o X X nX X X X X X X X X b X X X X XX XXX bbb X X bb & 6 6 X X4 X X4 X XXXXX bbb ?b b 9 X X X X X nX # X converging The second one, in B major (ex. 20.5), presents only the two outer voices, with the inner-voice pedal point implied. This Indugio is likewise slightly syncopated and includes a chromatic leading tone (B ) to . As in the previous example, I have added the figures “6/4” to highlight the placement of that sonority—the figures are not present in the early manuscripts or prints. This second example of the passing-6/4 variant also shows the less common option of the Indugio not proceeding to a Converging cadence. Instead the ? X ex. 20.9 Wanhal, Quartet in C Major (C1), mvt. 1, Allegro, m. 18 (1773) meyer prinner X X #X X X XXXX XXE 18 XXXXXX 4 X X X X X X X X XX X X X X X X X X X X X X XXXXXXX X XXX X & 4 nX X X X X 4 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X #X ?4 X X XX . & XXXXXX XXXXXX 22 ?X ¥ D X #X XX XX indugio X X X . X XXXXXX XXXXXX X ¥D X #X XX XX X X X XX XX XX XXX X X X X X X ¥ kX X X XXXXX X X XXXXX X X XX XX X X XXXX X X. X n) X X X X X # X( # X X X X X X X # X X EX XXXXXXXX # X ¥¥X X¥ Mozart, Piano Sonata in C major, K. 545, first movement (1788) Mozart, Overture to The Magic Flute (1791) schema. The program notes for a 2003 London recital by Artur Pizarro broadcast on the BBC mention that “the Sonata opens with a striking harmonic idea that begins on an ambiguous added-sixth chord and does not reach the tonic until the sixth bar.”6 The courtly schema thus fades into a harmonic curiosity. e x . 2 0 .13 Beethoven, Opus 31, no. 3, mvt. 1, Allegro, m. 1 (Vienna, 1802) indugio z v z v bbb 3 X . XX ¥ X . XX ¥ & 4E E E E p E E b b 3 EE ¥ EE ¥ b 4E E ? b 4 4 v #v ritardando... X XX XX b E ... XXX E X E cresc... X X X nE .. XXX E #4 4 U nE .. E. E S nE ... E E u w bX X X XXX XXX bX X X XXX nX X X 5 mi-re-do v a tempo XX X X p X X 5 u X X X nX X X k X XX X XX X X X X X X 1 The gradual transition from a galant to a more bourgeois music culture accelerated during the final decades of the eighteenth century. Obviously the revolution of 1789, which led to a crisis for French aristocrats and the bishops of the Church, created a concomitant crisis for the many musicians whom they supported. The unfortunate Anton Stamitz, one ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/02/2012 for the course MUSIC 2101 at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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