Midterm review presentation - STUFF TO KNOW FOR NEXT...

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Unformatted text preview: STUFF TO KNOW FOR NEXT WEDNESDAY’S MIDTERM Aldwell/Schachter: Keys, scales, intervals Concepts and definitions of consonance and dissonance Neighbor tones, passing tones, suspensions, anticipations, appoggiaturas Rhythmic organization and metrical features (syncopation, hemiola, metric shift) Triads and seventh chords Harmonic and melodic reduction STUFF TO KNOW FOR NEXT WEDNESDAY’S MIDTERM Gjerdingen Romanesca, Prinner: identify, reproduce, realize) Rule of the octave (all ascending/descending variants and approach to 3) Clausulae (soprano, alto, tenor, and bass) Cadences (semplice, composta, doppia, deceptive) Questions and answers (dialogical schemata: Meyer, Jupiter, Aprile, Pastorela; again, identify, reproduce, realize) Allanbrook/Lecture Notes/Listening Dance forms (march, minuet, bourrée, gavotte, contredanse, siciliano, gigue, sarabande, waltz) Topoi: registers (French Overture—Military/Hunting — “Turkish”—ombra—Pastoral/Musette); and modalities (cantabile—Strict—Brilliant—Sturm und Drang— Empfindsamkeit—Fantasia) Improvising Dances: A Dialogical Schematic Outline Duple Meter Rhythms: March (transferrable; allegro) Bourrée (middle; allegro) and Contredanse (low; presto) Gavotte (high; allegretto) 4 œ œ™ œ œ œ 4 > > 4œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 4 > > 4œœ œœœœ œœœœ 4 3 œ œ ™ œj œ ˙ 4> > Triple Meter Rhythms: Minuet (relatively unmarked: high/middle), Waltz/Ländler (low), and... Sarabande (high) (more characteristically in 3/2; adagio) 6 œ™ œ œ œ œ œ 8 Compound Meter Rhythms: Siciliano (low; andante) Gigue (middle/low; allegro) 6 œj œ œ œ œ œ œ 8 > > Extrapolated from Wye J. Allanbrook, Rhythmic Gesture in Mozart: Le nozze di Figaro and Don Giovanni. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983. High Middle Low Minuet (triple/ slow) Minuet (triple/ fast) Ländler/ Waltz(triple) Sarabande (triple) Gigue (compound) Pastorale/ Siciliana (compound) March/Gavotte (duple) March/Bourrée (duple) Contredanse (duple/triple) T h : G ¢ n I1 m·.¤ o f u an : ]IO U n rr 6 7 ruywx Th. Axmamx spam u..1m m lm m l oakum Qom. .»‘m·q bowsnmp /..4.1.Nw :4%-¤ [A Y2. ¤ i 2 A i s u '1,—··»..»¤ {/·»e»¤¤»,» g·..¤ ·; Registers: French Overture—Military/Hunting— m-ganizmiun palpable —ombra—Pastoral/Musettemeawres. “Turkish” -gummy¤gs ¤f bam and gmupings ¤l` In Hz walz; che dancer; {ex move m Hz: pulse uhhree which is p¤rc¤p— ` cible ¤n its lower level. butHze {bur-bean "phrase" shaped olmeasures is he more insiscem lim ohcxiqn; sometimes in quick walnzcs use operates Modalities: cantabile—Strict—Brilliant—Sturm und Drang— as ¤ "measure." and xherems "plu¤se" and "measure" begin en merge. Empfindsamkeit—Fantasia In the case uhqmpnund meters, groupings qhhc duple ben. nhu higher level of amine (che domed quarry nom In 6/8. lb. example), subszimu ` for gmupings musical topoi, after Wye Jamison Allanbrook of measure;. Toward Hz {elk ¤lxhespearmDunhille lcv- ll Partialbegin no upen up again. although less apparemly, since bah eves els list of are always duple. In A duple measure one mV perceive as xhc hear all Topoi in the music of Mozart, Haydn, and their contemporaries French Overture: dotted rhythms, pomp and ceremony Military/Hunting: French horns, flat keys, 3rds/5ths/6ths (“horn fifths”) “Turkish”: ostinati, acciaccaturas, augmented seconds, modal incongruity Ombra: trombones, sinister harmonies Pastoral/Musette: drone, 5ths in bass, Siciliana Singing Style: cantilena, from world of sentimental opera Strict Style: counterpoint, learned style, ecclesiastical Brilliant/Mechanical Style: passagework, virtuosity Sturm und Drang: syncopated rhythms, minor, turbulent Empfindsamkeit: “slow-movement style,” delicate, sensitive Fantasia: supernaturalistic, vertiginous, inspired music. Or put another way, it highlights only what Locatelli has in common with RimskyKorsakov. Walther, following the lead of Andreas Werckmeister (1645–1706),3 looked at clausulae more melodically, as was then the norm. For him, each of the four voices performed its own clausula, participating as an integral part in the “perfection” of the whole. The soprano performed the discant clausula, the alto performed the alto clausula, the tenor performed the tenor clausula, and the bass performed the bass clausula:4 e x . 1 1. 2 2 &2 2 ?2 A version of Walther’s four melodic clausulae XXE w E. w X E. E w w E X Soprano Tenor Bass Al t o w w w w w Any of these melodic clausulae could appear in the bass voice or part. Walther reserved the term clausula perfectissima for cadences where the normal bass performed the bass clausula ( – ). If the discant clausula ( – ) was performed by the lowest voice, he named the resulting cadence a clausula cantizans (“a cantus- or soprano-like clausula”); if the tenor clausula ( – ) appeared in the lowest voice, he named the resulting cadence a clausula tenorizans (“a tenor-like clausula”); and if the alto clausula ( – ) was played by the lowest voice, he named the resulting cadence a clausula altizans (“an alto-like clausula”). Walther’s treatise was, after all, written in the era of figured bass and partimenti. It drew attention to specific patterns in the bass that could help a young accompanist recognize the Gjerdingen, Music in the Galant Style, 140 (after Johann Gottfried Walther, friend of J. S. Bach) A Hierarchy of Clausula Types Lowest voice Uppermost voice Bass Soprano (Perfectissima) Tenor Tenor (Perfecta) Soprano Bass Alto Alto (Imperfecta) “simple ending” or “basic fall”—the Italian root of cadenza means both to fall and to terminate. If was repeated an octave lower before continuing to , the clausula was called cadenza composta, a “compound ending” involving the addition of a “cadential” 6/4 or 5/4 chord. Here are two instantiations in two different meters: Chapter 11 c lausulae Bass cadences (5-1) e x . 1 1.3 The standard galant clausula in its “simple” and “compound” forms 4¥XXX ?4 66 5 Simple In chapter 7, the discussion of the Monte Romanesca t aught by Mozart to T XX Attwood made mention of a cadenza doppia6 r “double cadence.” The “simple,” o6 E D 3D X 4 6 E¥ 54 pound” (see ex. 11.3), and “double” cadences were the three types expressly name taught to students of partimenti (see also appendix B, ex. B.1). Example 11.48 shows t X standard forms of the Cadenza Doppia, the first one the basic type and the secon characterized by theCddition ufnd ominant seventh (F5).22 a ompoo a d 34 5 1 3 4 55 1 e x . 1 1 . 4 8 The Cadenza Doppia, plain and with the dominant seventh In describing difficulties that arise when we seek to study improvised arts in the past, Ca points out doppia the theater historian Domenico Pietropaolodenza that while “our descriptive language Cadenza d 4X 4X & w 5 X E EX ww w 1 X7 X XE w EX 5 Historically, this cadence was old even in the eighteenth century, retained larg pedagogical or sacred works. Generally reserved for the final cadence, the Cadenza D made an appearance at the end of almost every partimento. This meant that as the s worked his or her way through a large collection of partimenti, the Cadenza Doppia Gjerdingen, Music in the Galant Style, 141, 169 be played over and over again. By dint of repetition each of its voices became emble w w characterized by the addition of a dominant seventh (F5).22 1 5 1 5 H The C this cadence was plain a in he e the dominant s retained e x . 1 1. 4 8 istorically,adenza Doppia,old evennd twithighteenth century, eventh largely for pedagogical or sacred works. Generally reserved for the final cadence, the Cadenza Doppia Cade at the nd of a pia made an appearancenza edoplmost every partimento. This meant tadetheztudentoppia C hat as n s a d worked his or her way through a large collection of partimenti, the Cadenza Doppia would 7 be played over and over again. By dint of repetition each of its voices became emblematic of cadencing, and traces of those voices can be found in many of the lighter galant clausulae. If one t akes the soprano and alto voices from a version of the Cadenza Doppia with the dominant seventh and removes its pedal-point bass, one can replicate the soprano-bass combination of a Comma followed by a Mi-Re-Do cadence with the standard bass (ex. 11.49). Several his cadence w type w even in earlier in examples 11.6, 7 etained Historically, texamples of this as old ere shownthe eighteenth century,,rand 13. largely for 4X 4X & w 5 X E EX ww w 1 X X w X E EX 1 ww w 1 5 pedagogical or sacred works. Generally reserved for the final cadence, the Cadenza Doppia ex. 11.49 Homologies between the Cadenza Doppia and more galant clausulae made an appearance at the end of almost every partimento. This meant that as the student com the worked his or herCadhrough dlarge icollection of partimenti, ma Cadenza Doppia would way tenza a opp a complete be played over and over again. By dint of repetition each of its voices became emblematic x x w 2—3 u u of cadencing, and tracesvf those voices can be found in many w the v 2 — galant clausuo of lighter 3 1 lae. If one t akes the soprano and alto voices from a version of the Cadenza Doppia with the 7 1 XXEX 4X X E X ww ww 4X E XE & w w Xcan rX X theXsoprano-bass w dominant seventh and removes its pedal-point bass, one eplicate 1 1 1 7 combination5 a Comma followed by a Mi-Re-Do cadence with the standard bass (ex. of 5 4 11.49). Several examples of this type were shown earlier in examples 11.6, 7, and 13. Walther’s four categories of clausulae, which recognize the partly independent mean- ings and histories of the individual voices, were differentiated only by the final two tones in e x . 1t1. 4bass. The subcategories shown in this adenzawere sometimes dore galant clausulae he 9 Homologies between the Cchapter Doppia and mifferentiated by how the bass arrived at those final two tones. The Comma and Long Comma, for example, differ in comma having Caand nza dasses,pia – de – – b op respectively. Sala made a distinction between omom-ete c the c pl 1 dom to “mix ahat, match” stock bdiversemn structurend diminutions, even gn the case of highly close t nd although quite asses, i elodies, a and complexity, were i enerally expected to stereotyped con the keynote, . One prominent class of cadential melodies featured a – – or mi– lausulae. Simple re–do descent. A typical example occurs in a small keyboard work by Cimarosa: e x . 1 1 .5 Mozart, KV1a, m. 5 (1761; age 5) e x . 1 1. 4 Cimarosa, Sonata C30, Allegretto, m. 1 (ca. 1780s) Mi-re-Do u 2 ju 4 # 4X XX X X jXX v X a X X w u jX j X {X u J XX X X v X &# XJ X X wvu X J X a wv X X x & 4w vu { u{ X X X XXX X X 24 X ## 4 X X XX X XXJ J ?4 ? 5 w 116 mi-re-do v u do-re-mi { 4 75 11 3 4 5 1 If a composer opted for the cadenza composta—two s, with the second one an octave He presents a Do-Re-Mi theme with a pacing of two beats per stage, and then closes, at a lower—it was still possible to employ the – – melody, though would often be shifted faster pace, with a Mi-Re-Do melody fitted above the semplice bass. At the quarter-note to align with the bass’s first as in this minuet by violinist Pierre Gaviniés (1728–1800): Compound ex. 11.6 pacing, the – – ending is obvious. Among the subsidiary patterns at an eighth-note pacing are descending thirds, – and – , as well as ascending seconds, – and – , Gaviniés, Opusignificant melodic Tempo dEven at a sixteenth-note pacing, the initiation all of which are s 3, no. 5, mvt. 2, gestures. i Minuetto, m. 29 (1764) of a rapid descending scale from a dissonant tone (the grace note F 5, which is performed M noting for later as a sixteenth note) above the bass’s is worth i-Re-Do reference. w v Mi-Re-Do u X X X X X X X X X X X X X X w «v u X X X. bb 3 X &8 X. 3 X. X b8 X X. ?b X 5 29 29 7 1 4 5 1 e x . 1 1. 8 Salieri, La fiera di Venezia, “Mio caro Adone,” Andante, m. 13 (1772) descending hexachord z XXX XX xw # 3 z. X &4 £ #3 ¥ 4 E. X X & 4 v u X X X X X X w «v u ¥ XX X X XX XXX X X ¥X ¥ ?X X X X X E. 55 1 prinner 13 e x . 1 1. 9 y Mi-Re-Do y. 4 3 Mozart, Var. on a theme by Salieri (KV300e), Var. 6, Allegretto, m. 13 (1773) descending hexachord z y x wvu X X X X X Xu X{ X Xu XX X # 2 #X z X X #X y X X X X X X X z 4 yx & w #2 a j X X 3X X 2 X X1 XX & 4 X X X X #X X X X X J 5 p r i n n er 13 4 3 3 4 1 e x . 1 1.1 2 Cudworth’s cadence galante (1949) cudworth u { zyx wv ## 3 X 4J & ## 3 X 4J ? 3 kX X XX X X X X 4 5 X X u 5 1 X E. E. Many features of the Cudworth cadence have already been discussed, such as its initiation of a rapid scalar descent from a dissonance ( ) over in the bass, its coordination of the melodic – over the two s in the compound bass (the “cadential 6/4”), and (though not in Cudworth’s own example) the frequent use of a trill on . So it is closely related to the other types of standard cadences. But the salience of the melody rising to the high before hurtling down to the final was such that a Cudworth cadence tended to serve as a main cadence placed at the end of an entire movement or at least a large section. Because numerous instances of the Cudworth cadence will be found throughout this book, it is unnecessary to provide more examples here. But it may be useful to highlight some special cases. Like other cadences, the Cudworth cadence can be nested within a larger progression, as in the example below by Tartini (ex. 11.13). A descending scale – – – – is both interrupted and then completed by the Cudworth cadence. The dotted brace indicates the weaker initial articulation that Tartini’s passage shares with those of Gaviniés and Schobert presented earlier. e x . 1 1.13 Tartini, Opus 6, no. 4, mvt. 1, Adagio, m. 17 (Paris, ca. 1748) maestros Carlo Cotumacci (ca. 1709–1785)9 and Nicola Sala,10 show that essentially the same bass and figures were used in both the major and the minor modes: e x . 1 1.17 Cotumacci, from a partimento in C minor, m. 27 (Naples) deceptive 6 5 b4 X X ?b 4 27 6 n X 345 e x . 1 1.18 complete 6 5 n X 4 bX X 3 5 X 6 6! 3 ? X X 6 6 5 3 45 ## 4 X 4 U D 1 Sala, from a partimento in D major, m. 39 (Naples) deceptive 39 U E 3 complete X 5 X 6 6! 3 X 6 5 X 3 45 U w 1 Other departures from expectation fell under the rubrics of “avoided” or “evaded” cadences, terms that were used interchangeably. A second partimento by Cotumacci shows how a cadence ending on in the bass, rather than , evaded full closure and, like the deceptive cadence, required a second, successful attempt at cadencing (my exclamation point marks the point of evasion):11 e x . 1 1.19 Cotumacci, from a partimento in E minor, m. 27 (Naples) e x . 1 1. 27 Barbella, Six Solos, no. 4, mvt. 3, Presto, m. 63 (London, 1765) pulcinella . Chapter 11 ec lausulae . . Dec ptive pulcinella55 . . complete . 1 X . 11.28, from X .ardini’s Opus 5 v. iolin sonatas,Xb.elieved written.in «orthernX . « « X« « Xn present example 3 b IbItaly oXAustria. NXardini sets a dN X X PulcinellaXtwice with scintillating harmonicXclashes, X X X XX X eceptive & 8r w w w executesw adenza-like sX that touches the high A5 w begins the w aXc olo dX o X X X X and X X X Xescent Xf theXhX X- X X X 40) beforeX initiating X Cudworth cXadence. X e gives that Cudworth cadence aX X X X XX a XX X X exa chord (m. H b3 X X XX b deceptive bass and an evaded melody (m. 43), which leads to a varied repeat of the small 8 ? u 63 63 u u u u u cadenza. Nardini finally closes with a complete and emphatic Cudworth cadence in the lower register. 3 6 5 4 4 3 wv X « XXX X X XXXXX X X 5 u 1 Nardini, Opus 5wno.musicallyArelated t.o3B(1769) through connections with the violin school Nardini , as 4, mvt. 3, llegro, m 2 arbella ex. 11.28 of maestro Tartini at Padua. To show that the Pulcinella cadence was used beyond Naples, pulcinella . . . Deceptive pulcinella . . . deceptive w uy w uy w uy w uy w uy w uy w uy w u # # 3 X X X X X X XX X XX X XX X X X X XX X X X X X & 4X XXX XXX XXX XX X XXX XXX XXX X 6 6 6 6 6 6 4 6 # # 3 X ¥ X X ¥ X X ¥ X X ¥ X X ¥ X X ¥ X 4 ¥ X X ¥ 6X X ?4 32 32 3 z 4 y xw 6 5 4 3 cudworth z y 63 cudworth wv u X X # X X nX X X X X X XX X ## X X X #X X XE X X X # X X X X jX £ « X & X X X XX X X E . { £6# 6 X X 4 z!y x w ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ X X X # 4 ## X ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ X X XX X ? X6 X E.{ 6 1 40 40 4 wv u X E 5 45 5 prinner xw 1 45 1 5 5 3 6 3 6 3 6 3 5 3 6 3 6 3 5 3 1 2345678 f igu r e b .1 A first approximation of the Rule of the Octave 5 3 6 3 6 3 6 5 3 5 3 6 3 6 5 3 5 3 1 2345678 f igu r e b .2 5 3 6 4 3 A second approximation—the Rule ascending 6 3 6 3 5 3 #6 4 3 6 3 5 3 1 2345678 f igu r e b .3 A second approximation—the Rule descending 6 4 3 6 3 6 4 2 1 2345678 f igu r e b .4 A third approximation—the approach to 454 m usic in the galant style The R omanesca The Romanesca (see chap. 2) was used primarily as an opening gambit. Its period of greatest currency was the 1720s and 1730s, though it remained an option throughout the century. As the first schema for an Adagio, the galant Romanesca was so common as to be almost a cliché during the first half of the century. Strong Weak Strong Weak 5 3 6 3 5 3 6 3 7 6 1 3 Central Features • Four equally spaced events, with the first beginning on a metrically strong position, usually a downbeat. • In the melody, an emphasis on and (the particular contour and order are variable). • In the bass, an initial stepwise descent from , with the odd-numbered tones supporting 5/3 sonorities and the even-numbered tones 6/3 sonorities. • A sequence of four triads with roots (and mode) on (major), (major), (minor), and (major). Variants • A leaping type, in which the bass alternately leaps down a fourth and steps up a second, all with 5/3 sonorities (the fourth of which was minor). This was the seventeenth-century norm. • A stepwise type, in which the bass descends entirely by step, with alternating 5/3 and 6/3 sonorities. 455 a ppendix a: schema prototypes The Prinner The Prinner (see chap. 3) was often used as the riposte or answer to an opening gambit. Its period of greatest currency was the 1720s to the 1770s, though it remained an option throughout the century. The presence of a Prinner riposte is one of the best indications of a musical style grounded in the Italian galant. Strong z 5 3 4 Weak y 6 3 3 Strong v x Weak w 7-6 3 5 3 2 1 5 Robert Gjerdingen, Music in the Galant Style (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), 455 459 a ppendix a: schema prototypes The M eyer The Meyer (see chap. 9) was often chosen for important themes. Its period of greatest currency was the 1760s through the 1780s. In earlier, shorter examples, the core melodic tones constitute a major fraction of the perceived melody. In later, longer examples, the two paired events constitute brief moments of punctuation amid a profusion of decorative melodic figures. Open Weak u 5 3 1 Closed Strong W e ak x { 6 3 2 6 5 7 Strong w 5 3 1 Central Features • Four events presented in pairs at comparable locations in the meter (e.g., across a bar line, or at mid-bar, with one, two, or four measures between the pairs). • In the melody, the descending semitone – is answered by a subsequent descent – (in the “typical Italian solfeggio” both dyads are fa–mi in major). • In the bass, the ascending step – is answered by a – ascent (or – ). • A sequence of four sonorities, usually 5/3, 6/3, 6/5/3, and 5/3. The first and last seem stable while the middle two seem unstable. Variants • The – may be higher or lower in pitch than the – . • The related Jupiter schema has a – – – melody, sharing its opening dyad with the Do-Re-Mi and its closing dyad with the Meyer. • The related Pastorella schema has a – – – melody, also sharing its closing dyad with the Meyer. • The related Aprile schema has a – – – melody, sharing its opening dyad with the Meyer. ...
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