8Chapter 04

8chapter 04

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4 Alcohols and Alkyl Halides Dr. Wolf's CHM 201 & 202 4- 1 Overview of Chapter Overview of Chapter This chapter introduces chemical reactions and This their mechanisms by focusing on two reactions their that yield alkyl halides. (1) alcohol + hydrogen halide ROH + HX → RX + H2O ROH (2) alkane + halogen RH + X2 → RX + HX Both are substitution reactions Dr. Wolf's CHM 201 & 202 4- 2 4.1 Functional Groups Dr. Wolf's CHM 201 & 202 4- 3 Functional Group Functional Group a structural unit in a molecule responsible for its characteristic behavior under a particular set of reaction conditions Dr. Wolf's CHM 201 & 202 4- 4 Families of organic compounds Families of organic compounds and their functional groups and their functional groups Alcohol Alkyl halide Amine ROH RX (X = F, Cl, Br, I) primary amine: RNH2 secondary amine: R2NH secondary tertiary amine: R3N tertiary Dr. Wolf's CHM 201 & 202 4- 5 Families of organic compounds Families of organic compounds and their functional groups and their functional groups Epoxide C C O Ether Nitrile Nitroalkane ROR' RCN RNO2 Sulfide Thiol RSR' RSH Dr. Wolf's CHM 201 & 202 4- 6 Many classes of organic compounds contain Many classes of organic compounds contain Many Many a carbonyl group a carbonyl group carbonyl carbonyl O O C C Carbonyl group Dr. Wolf's CHM 201 & 202 R Acyl group 4- 7 Many classes of organic compounds contain Many classes of organic compounds contain Many Many a carbonyl group a carbonyl group carbonyl carbonyl O O C C Carbonyl group Dr. Wolf's CHM 201 & 202 R H Aldehyde 4- 8 Many classes of organic compounds contain Many classes of organic compounds contain Many Many a carbonyl group a carbonyl group carbonyl carbonyl O O C C Carbonyl group Dr. Wolf's CHM 201 & 202 R R' Ketone 4- 9 Many classes of organic compounds contain Many classes of organic compounds contain Many Many a carbonyl group a carbonyl group carbonyl carbonyl O O C C Carbonyl group Dr. Wolf's CHM 201 & 202 R OH Carboxylic acid 4- 10 Many classes of organic compounds contain Many classes of organic compounds contain Many Many a carbonyl group a carbonyl group carbonyl carbonyl O O C C Carbonyl group Dr. Wolf's CHM 201 & 202 R OR' Ester 4- 11 Many classes of organic compounds contain Many classes of organic compounds contain Many Many a carbonyl group a carbonyl group carbonyl carbonyl O O C C Carbonyl group Dr. Wolf's CHM 201 & 202 R NH2 Amide 4- 12 4.2 IUPAC Nomenclature of Alkyl Halides Dr. Wolf's CHM 201 & 202 4- 13 IUPAC Nomenclature IUPAC Nomenclature There are several kinds of IUPAC nomenclature. The two that are most widely used are: functional class nomenclature substitutive nomenclature Both types can be applied to alcohols and alkyl halides. Dr. Wolf's CHM 201 & 202 4- 14 Functional Class Nomenclature of Alkyl Halides Functional Class Nomenclature of Alkyl Halides Name the alkyl group and the halogen as separate words (alkyl + halide) halide CH3F CH3CH2CHCH2CH2CH3 Br Dr. Wolf's CHM 201 & 202 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2Cl H I 4- 15 Functional Class Nomenclature of Alkyl Halides Functional Class Nomenclature of Alkyl Halides Name the alkyl group and the halogen as separate words (alkyl + halide) halide CH3F CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2Cl Methyl fluoride Pentyl chloride CH3CH2CHCH2CH2CH3 Br 1-Ethylbutyl bromide Dr. Wolf's CHM 201 & 202 H I Cyclohexyl io...
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