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chapt01_lec - Chapter 1 Keys to the Study of Keys Chemistry...

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1-1 Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101 Chapter 1 Keys to the Study of Keys to the Study of Chemistry Chemistry
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1-2 Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101 Chapter 1 : Keys to the Study of Chemistry 1.1 Some Fundamental Definitions 1.2 Chemical Arts and the Origins of Modern Chemistry 1.3 The Scientific Approach: Developing a Model 1.4 Chemical Problem Solving 1.5 Measurement in Scientific Study 1.6 Uncertainty in Measurement: Significant Figures
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1-3 Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101 CHEMISTRY Is the study of matter, its properties, the changes that matter undergoes, and the energy associated with these changes.
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1-4 Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101 Definitions Chemical Properties those which the substance shows as it interacts with, or transforms into, other substances such as flammability, corrosiveness Matter anything that has mass and volume -the “stuff” of the universe: books, planets, trees, professors, students Composition the types and amounts of simpler substances that make up a sample of matter Properties the characteristics that give each substance a unique identity Physical Properties those which the substance shows by itself without interacting with another substance such as color, melting point, boiling point, density
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1-5 Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101 The Physical States of Matter
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1-6 Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101 Sample Problem 1.1 Distinguishing Between Physical and Chemical Change PROBLEM: Decide whether each of the following process is primarily a physical or a chemical change, and explain briefly. PLAN: “Does the substance change composition or just change form?” SOLUTION: (a) Frost forms as the temperature drops on a humid winter night. (b) A cornstalk grows from a seed that is watered and fertilized. (c) Dynamite explodes to form a mixture of gases. (d) Perspiration evaporates when you relax after jogging. (e) A silver fork tarnishes in air. (a) physical change (b) chemical change (c) chemical change (d) physical change (e) chemical change
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1-7 Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101 Energy is the capacity to do work. energy due to the position of the object or energy from a chemical reaction Potential Energy Kinetic Energy energy due to the motion of the object Potential and kinetic energy can be interconverted. Energy is important in the study of matter.
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1-8 Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101 Energy is the capacity to do work. Potential Energy energy due to the position of the object or energy from a chemical reaction Kinetic Energy energy due to the motion of the object Potential and kinetic energy can be interconverted.
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1-9 Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101 Scientific Approach: Developing a Model Observations : Hypothesis: Experiment: Model (Theory): Further Experiment: Natural phenomena and measured events; universally consistent ones can be stated as a natural law. Tentative proposal that explains observations. Procedure to test hypothesis; measures one variable at a time.
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