chapt01_lec

chapt01_lec - 1-1Dr Wolf’s CHM 101Chapter 1Keys to the...

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Unformatted text preview: 1-1Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101Chapter 1Keys to the Study of Keys to the Study of ChemistryChemistry1-2Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101Chapter 1 : Keys to the Study of Chemistry1.1Some Fundamental Definitions1.2Chemical Arts and the Origins of Modern Chemistry1.3The Scientific Approach: Developing a Model1.4Chemical Problem Solving1.5Measurement in Scientific Study1.6Uncertainty in Measurement: Significant Figures1-3Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101CHEMISTRYIs the study of matter, its properties, the changes that matter undergoes, and the energy associated with these changes.1-4Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101DefinitionsChemical Propertiesthose which the substance shows as it interacts with, or transforms into, other substances such as flammability, corrosiveness Matteranything that has mass and volume -the “stuff” of the universe: books, planets, trees, professors, studentsCompositionthe types and amounts of simpler substances that make up a sample of matterPropertiesthe characteristics that give each substance a unique identityPhysical Propertiesthose which the substance shows by itself without interacting with another substance such as color, melting point, boiling point, density1-5Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101The Physical States of Matter1-6Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101Sample Problem 1.1Distinguishing Between Physical and Chemical ChangePROBLEM:Decide whether each of the following process is primarily a physical or a chemical change, and explain briefly.PLAN:“Does the substance change composition or just change form?”SOLUTION:(a) Frost forms as the temperature drops on a humid winter night.(b) A cornstalk grows from a seed that is watered and fertilized.(c) Dynamite explodes to form a mixture of gases.(d) Perspiration evaporates when you relax after jogging.(e) A silver fork tarnishes in air.(a) physical change(b) chemical change(c) chemical change(d) physical change(e) chemical change1-7Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101Energyis the capacity to do work.energy due to the position of the object or energy from a chemical reactionPotential EnergyKinetic Energyenergy due to the motion of the objectPotential and kinetic energy can be interconverted.Energyis important in the study of matter.1-8Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101Energyis the capacity to do work.Potential Energyenergy due to the positionof the object or energy from a chemical reactionKinetic Energyenergy due to the motionof the objectPotential and kinetic energy can be interconverted.1-9Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101Scientific Approach:Developing a ModelObservations :Hypothesis:Experiment:Model (Theory):Further Experiment:Natural phenomena and measured events; universally consistent ones can be stated as a natural law.Tentative proposal that explains observations.Procedure to test hypothesis; measures one variable at a time....
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chapt01_lec - 1-1Dr Wolf’s CHM 101Chapter 1Keys to the...

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