chapt03_lec

chapt03_lec - 3-1Dr. Wolfs CHM 101Chapter...

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Unformatted text preview: 3-1Dr. Wolfs CHM 101Chapter 3Stoichiometry3-2Dr. Wolfs CHM 101Mole - Mass Relationships in Chemical Systems3.5Fundamentals of Solution Stoichiometry3.1The Mole3.2Determining the Formula of an Unknown Compound3.3Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations3.4Calculating the Amounts of Reactant and Product3-3Dr. Wolfs CHM 101mole- the amount of a substance that contains the same number of entities as there are atoms in exactly 12g of carbon-12, i.e. the numerical value of the atoms mass in gramsThis amount is 6.022x1023. The number is called Avogadros number and is abbrieviated asN.One mole (1 mol) contains 6.022x1023entities (to four significant figures)The Mole3-4Dr. Wolfs CHM 101Counting Objects of Fixed Relative Mass12 red marbles @ 7g each = 84g12 yellow marbles @4g each=48gSo equal numbers will always have the same 7:4 ratio = 84:4855.85g Fe = 6.022 x 1023atoms Fe32.07g S = 6.022 x 1023atoms SThese values come from the atomic mass values for Fe and S in the Periodic Table3-5Dr. Wolfs CHM 101Water, H2O18.02 gOne Mole of Common SubstancesCaCO3100.09 gOxygen, O232.00 gCopper63.55 g3-6Dr. Wolfs CHM 101Table 3.1 Summary of Mass TerminologyTermDefinitionUnitIsotopic massMass of an isotope of an elementamuAtomic massMolecular (or formula) massMolar mass (M)(also called atomic weight)(also called molecular weight)(also called gram-molecular weight)amuamug/molAverage of the masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element weighted according to their abundanceSum of the atomic masses of the atoms (or ions) in a molecule (or formula unit)Mass of 1 mole of chemical entities (atoms, ions, molecules, formula units)3-7Dr. Wolfs CHM 101Calculating the Molar Mass of a SubstanceFor monatomic elements, the molar mass is the numerical value on the periodic table expressed in g/molFor molecules, the molar mass is the sum of the molar masses of each of the atoms in the molecular formula.3-8Dr. Wolfs CHM 101Information Contained in the Chemical Formula of Glucose C6H12O6( M = 180.16 g/mol)Oxygen (O)Mass/mole of compound6 atoms96.00 gCarbon (C)Hydrogen (H)Atoms/moleculeof compoundMoles of atoms/mole of compoundAtoms/mole ofcompoundMass/moleculeof compound6 atoms12 atoms6 moles of atoms12 moles of atoms 6 moles of atoms 6(6.022 x 1023) atoms 12(6.022 x 1023) atoms 6(6.022 x 1023) atoms6(12.01 amu) =72.06 amu12(1.008 amu) =12.10 amu6(16.00 amu) =96.00 amu72.06 g12.10 gSo for glucose with 6 carbon atoms, 12 hydrogen atoms, and 6 oxygen atom, the molar mass is 72.06 + 12.10 + 96.00 = 180.16 g/mol3-9Dr. Wolfs CHM 101Interconverting Moles, Mass, and Number of Chemical EntitiesMass (g) = no. of moles x no. of grams1 molNo. of moles = mass (g) xno. of grams1 molNo. of entities = no. of moles x6.022x1023entities1 molNo. of moles = no. of entities x 6.022x1023entities1 mol3-10Dr. Wolfs CHM 1013-11Dr. Wolfs CHM 101Sample Problem 3.1Calculating the Mass and the Number of Atoms in a Given Number of Moles of an ElementPROBLEM:PLAN:SOLUTION:...
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chapt03_lec - 3-1Dr. Wolfs CHM 101Chapter...

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