chapt05_lec

chapt05_lec - Chapter 5 Gases and the Kinetic Molecular...

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Dr. Wolf’s 5-1 Chapter 5 Gases and the Kinetic Molecular Theory
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Dr. Wolf’s 5-2 Gases and the Kinetic Molecular Theory 5.1 An Overview of the Physical States of Matter 5.2 Gas Pressure and Its Measurement 5.3 The Gas Laws and Their Experimental Foundations 5.4 Further Applications of the Ideal Gas Law 5.5 The Ideal Gas Law and Reaction Stoichiometry 5.6 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory: A Model for Gas Behavior 5.7 Real Gases: Deviations from Ideal Behavior
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Dr. Wolf’s 5-3 An Overview of the Physical States of Matter The Distinction of Gases from Liquids and Solids 1. Gas volume changes greatly with pressure. 2. Gas volume changes greatly with temperature. 3. Gas have relatively low viscosity. 4. Most gases have relatively low densites under normal conditions. 5. Gases are miscible.
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Dr. Wolf’s 5-4 Figure 5.1 The three states of matter.
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Dr. Wolf’s 5-5 Measuring Gas Pressure Barometer - A device to measure atmospheric pressure. Pressure is defined as force divided by area. The force is the force of gravity acting on the air molecules. Manometer - A device to measure gas pressure in a closed container.
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Dr. Wolf’s 5-6 Figure 5.3 A mercury barometer.
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Dr. Wolf’s 5-7 Figure 5.4 Two types of manometer
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Dr. Wolf’s 5-8 Table 5.2 Common Units of Pressure Atmospheric Pressure Unit Scientific Field chemistry atmosphere(atm) 1 atm pascal(Pa); kilopascal(kPa) 1.01325x10 5 Pa; 101.325 kPa SI unit; physics, chemistry millimeters of mercury(Hg) 760 mmHg chemistry, medicine, biology torr 760 torr chemistry pounds per square inch (psi or lb/in 2 ) 14.7lb/in 2 engineering bar 1.01325 bar meteorology, chemistry, physics
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Dr. Wolf’s 5-9 Sample Problem 5.1 Converting Units of Pressure PROBLEM: A geochemist heats a limestone (CaCO 3 ) sample and collects the CO 2 released in an evacuated flask attached to a closed-end manometer. After the system comes to room temperature, h = 291.4mmHg. Calculate the CO 2 pressure in torrs, atmospheres, and kilopascals. SOLUTION: PLAN: Construct conversion factors to find the other units of pressure. 291.4mmHg 1torr 1mmHg = 291.4torr 291.4torr 1atm 760torr = 0.3834atm 0.3834atm 101.325kPa 1atm = 38.85kPa
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Dr. Wolf’s 5-10 Boyle’s Law - The relationship between volume and the pressure of a gas. (Temperature is kept constant.)
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Dr. Wolf’s 5-11 Boyle’s Law V α n and T are fixed 1 P PV = constant V = constant / P
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Dr. Wolf’s 5-12 Charles’s Law - The relationship between volume and the temperature of a gas. (Pressure is kept constant.)
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Dr. Wolf’s 5-13 Boyle’s Law n and T are fixed V α 1 P Charles’s Law V α T P and n are fixed V T = constant V = constant x T Amonton’s Law P α T V and n are fixed P T = constant P = constant x T combined gas law V α T P V = constant x T P PV T = constant When the amount of gas, n, is constant
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Dr. Wolf’s 5-14 An experiment to study the relationship between the volume and amount of a gas. Avogadro’s Law -
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chapt05_lec - Chapter 5 Gases and the Kinetic Molecular...

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