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chapt07_lec - Chapter 7 Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure...

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7-1 Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101 Chapter 7 Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure
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7-2 Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101 Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure 7.1 The Nature of Light 7.2 Atomic Spectra 7.3 The Wave-Particle Duality of Matter and Energy 7.4 The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom
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7-3 Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101 Wavelength , λ, the distance from one crest to the next in the wave. Measured in units of distance. c = λ ν Frequency , ν, the number of complete cycles per sec., cps, Hz Electromagnetic Radiation ( light) - Wave like Speed of Light , C, same for all EM radiation. 3.00 x 10 10 cm/sec in vacuum
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7-4 Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101 Amplitude (Intensity) of a Wave
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7-5 Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101 Regions of the Electromagnetic Spectrum c = λ ν ν = c / λ 1000 kHz 100 MHz 3 m 300 m
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7-6 Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101 Sample Problem 7.1 SOLUTION: PLAN: Interconverting Wavelength and Frequency PROBLEM: A dental hygienist uses x-rays ( λ = 1.00A) to take a series of dental radiographs while the patient listens to a radio station ( λ = 325cm) and looks out the window at the blue sky ( λ = 473nm). What is the frequency (in s -1 ) of the electromagnetic radiation from each source? (Assume that the radiation travels at the speed of light, 3.00x10 8 m/s.) wavelength in units given wavelength in m frequency (s -1 or Hz) 1A = 10 -10 m 1cm = 10 -2 m 1nm = 10 -9 m ν = c/ λ Use c = λν 1.00A 325cm 473nm 10 -10 m 1A 10 -2 m 1cm 10 -9 m 1nm = 1.00x10 -10 m = 325x10 -2 m = 473x10 -9 m ν = 3x10 8 m/s 1.00x10 -10 m = 3x10 18 s -1 ν = ν = 3x10 8 m/s 325x10 -2 m = 9.23x10 7 s -1 3x10 8 m/s 473x10 -9 m = 6.34x10 14 s -1
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7-7 Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101 Different behaviors of waves and particles.
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7-8 Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101 The diffraction pattern caused by light passing through two adjacent slits.
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7-9 Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101 Electromagnetic Radiation - Particle like The view that EM was wavelike could not explain certain phenomena like : 1) Blackbody radiation - when objects are heated, they give off shorter and more intense radiation as the temperature increases, e.g. dull red hot, to hotter orange, to white hot ....... But wavelike properties would predict hotter temps would continue to give more and more of shorter and shorter wavelengths. But instead a bell shape curve of intensities is obtained with the peak at the IR- Vis part of the spectrum.
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7-10 Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101 Blackbody Radiation E = h ν Electromagnetic Radiation E = hc/ λ Planck’s constant h = 6.626 x 10 -34 J-s
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7-11 Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101 Electromagnetic Radiation - Particle like The view that EM was wavelike could not explain certain phenomena like : 2) Photoelectron Effect - light shinning on certain metal plates caused a flow of electrons.
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