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chapt08_lec - 8-1Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101Chapter 8Electron...

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Unformatted text preview: 8-1Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101Chapter 8Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity8-2Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity8.1Development of the Periodic Table8.2Characteristics of Many-Electron Atoms8.3 The Quantum-Mechanical Model and the Periodic Table8.4Trends in Some Key Periodic Atomic Properties8.5The Connection Between Atomic Structure and Chemical Reactivity8-3Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101Mendeleev’s Periodic LawArranged the 65 known elements by atomic mass and by recurrence of various physical and chemical properties.The Periodic Table today is very similar but arranged according to atomic number (number of protons).The arrangement led to families of elements with similar properties and at the time allowed for the prediction and properties of elements yet to be discovered.8-4Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101Mendeleev’s Predicted Properties of Germanium (“eka Silicon”) and Its Actual PropertiesTable 8.1PropertyPredicted Properties of eka Silicon(E)Actual Properties of Germanium (Ge)atomic massappearancedensitymolar volumespecific heat capacityoxide formulaoxide densitysulfide formula and solubilitychloride formula (boiling point)chloride densityelement preparation72amugray metal5.5g/cm313cm3/mol0.31J/g*KEO24.7g/cm3ES2; insoluble in H2O; soluble in aqueous (NH4)2SECl4; (<100C)1.9g/cm3reduction of K2EF6with sodium72.61amugray metal5.32g/cm313.65cm3/mol0.32J/g*KGeO24.23g/cm3GeS2; insoluble in H2O; soluble in aqueous (NH4)2SGeCl4; (84C)1.844g/cm3reduction of K2GeF6with sodium8-5Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101Remember from Chapter 7 - Quantum Numbers and Atomic OrbitalsAn atomic orbital is specified by three quantum numbers.nthe principal quantum number - a positive integerlthe angular momentum quantum number - an integer from 0 to n-1mlthe magnetic moment quantum number - an integer from -lto +lThe three quantum numbers are actually giving the energy of the electron in the orbital and a fourth q.n. is needed to describe a property of electrons called spin. The spin can be clockwise or counterclockwise.The spin q.n., ms can be + ½ or - ½ .The Pauli Exclusion Principle- No two electrons in the same atom can have the same four q.n. Since the first three q.n. define the orbital, this means only two electrons can be in the same orbital and they must have opposite spins.8-6Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101Table 8.2 Summary of Quantum Numbers of Electrons in AtomsNameSymbolPermitted ValuesPropertyprincipalnpositive integers(1,2,3,…)orbital energy (size)angular momentumlintegers from 0 to n-1orbital shape (The lvalues 0, 1, 2, and 3 correspond to s, p, d, and f orbitals, respectively.)magneticmlintegers from -lto 0 to +lorbital orientationspinms+1/2 or -1/2direction of e-spin8-7Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101Factors Affecting Atomic Orbital EnergiesAdditional electron in the same orbital (makes less stable)An additional electron raises the orbital energy through electron-electron repulsions....
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chapt08_lec - 8-1Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101Chapter 8Electron...

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