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chapt08_lec - Chapter 8 Electron Configuration and Chemical...

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8-1 Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101 Chapter 8 Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity
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8-2 Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101 Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity 8.1 Development of the Periodic Table 8.2 Characteristics of Many-Electron Atoms 8.3 The Quantum-Mechanical Model and the Periodic Table 8.4 Trends in Some Key Periodic Atomic Properties 8.5 The Connection Between Atomic Structure and Chemical Reactivity
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8-3 Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101 Mendeleev’s Periodic Law Arranged the 65 known elements by atomic mass and by recurrence of various physical and chemical properties. The Periodic Table today is very similar but arranged according to atomic number (number of protons). The arrangement led to families of elements with similar properties and at the time allowed for the prediction and properties of elements yet to be discovered.
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8-4 Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101 Mendeleev’s Predicted Properties of Germanium (“eka Silicon”) and Its Actual Properties Table 8.1 Property Predicted Properties of eka Silicon(E) Actual Properties of Germanium (Ge) atomic mass appearance density molar volume specific heat capacity oxide formula oxide density sulfide formula and solubility chloride formula (boiling point) chloride density element preparation 72amu gray metal 5.5g/cm 3 13cm 3 /mol 0.31J/g*K EO 2 4.7g/cm 3 ES 2 ; insoluble in H 2 O; soluble in aqueous (NH 4 ) 2 S ECl 4 ; (<100 0 C) 1.9g/cm 3 reduction of K 2 EF 6 with sodium 72.61amu gray metal 5.32g/cm 3 13.65cm 3 /mol 0.32J/g*K GeO 2 4.23g/cm 3 GeS 2 ; insoluble in H 2 O; soluble in aqueous (NH 4 ) 2 S GeCl 4 ; (84 0 C) 1.844g/cm 3 reduction of K 2 GeF 6 with sodium
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8-5 Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101 Remember from Chapter 7 - Quantum Numbers and Atomic Orbitals An atomic orbital is specified by three quantum numbers. n the principal quantum number - a positive integer l the angular momentum quantum number - an integer from 0 to n-1 m l the magnetic moment quantum number - an integer from - l to + l The three quantum numbers are actually giving the energy of the electron in the orbital and a fourth q.n. is needed to describe a property of electrons called spin. The spin can be clockwise or counterclockwise. The spin q.n., m s can be + ½ or - ½ . The Pauli Exclusion Principle - No two electrons in the same atom can have the same four q.n. Since the first three q.n. define the orbital, this means only two electrons can be in the same orbital and they must have opposite spins.
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8-6 Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101 Table 8.2 Summary of Quantum Numbers of Electrons in Atoms Name Symbol Permitted Values Property principal n positive integers(1,2,3,…) orbital energy (size) angular momentum l integers from 0 to n-1 orbital shape (The l values 0, 1, 2, and 3 correspond to s, p, d, and f orbitals, respectively.) magnetic m l integers from - l to 0 to + l orbital orientation spin m s +1/2 or -1/2 direction of e - spin
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8-7 Dr. Wolf’s CHM 101 Factors Affecting Atomic Orbital Energies Additional electron in the same orbital (makes less stable) An additional electron
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