Session 4 CRT - Components of the Research Report Research...

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Unformatted text preview: Components of the Research Report Research Session 4 C507 Scientific Writing Research Report Research Also called an original data report Most frequent type of scientific paper Most The Conventional Format The Readers expect to read about your Readers research in the sequence in which the research developed: research What question you set out to answer How you sought the answer What was found What your answer is A research paper gives information in 4 research steps steps Step 1 Step The question to be answered can be either The an hypothesis to be tested or a problem to be resolved be Step 2 Step How the answer was sought includes the How steps taken to test the hypothesis or to resolve the problem resolve Step 3 Step What was found includes the relevant data What from your study, supporting evidence from other papers, and counter-evidence that had to be assessed. had Step 4 Step The answer to the question is whether the The hypothesis was supported or theproblem was resolved and, if resolved, with what solution. solution. The Usual Sequence The (Abstract and Key Terms) Introduction Methods Results Discussion Conclusion (References) The Abstract The We will devote an entire session to this so We will leave it for now, except to say that today a Structured Abstract is used. Structured The Introduction The Tell the reader why the research was Tell started started Do not explain what can be found in any Do textbook in the field textbook The Introduction The Do not elaborate on terms used in the title Do of the paper of Make clear what question the research Make was designed to answer was The Introduction The Most authors close an Introduction with a Most statement of purpose. statement Some may include a short summary of the Some study design study Some may also close the Introduction a Some short statement of the research findingsdo not do this do Methods Methods What did you do? The reader will want to know exactly what The you did; repeatability is the key concept here. Methods- Organization Methods Study design is selected (after the Study hypothesis is stated) hypothesis The subjects to be studied are defined Interventions (such as treatments are Interventions decided on in detail decided Methods- Organization Methods Measurements and other observations to Measurements be made are specified, including the methods methods Statistical procedures for assessment of Statistical data are selected data Study Design Study Those that are well known need be Those specified by title only specified Those that are unusual but have been Those described should have a citation to the source source New designs should be described in detail Subjects Subjects Characterize subjects as fully as possible Ethical controls should be noted as well Informed consent IRB approval Intervention/Treatment Intervention/Treatment Describe the intervention fully Control Experimental Measurements and Other Observations Observations Standard methods for laboratory or other Standard procedures need to be identified only by name and citation name Variations from these should be described Variations in enough detail to enable duplication by another person another Unpublished methods must be described Unpublished in detail and evidence they have been validated presented. validated Statistical Analysis Statistical Specify the analysis Methods- General Comments Methods You can always use subheadings in this You section, ie: section, Study Design Subjects Experimental Protocol Statistical Analysis Results Results Describe your evidence as efficiently as Describe possible possible Numerical data should be presented in Numerical tables of graphs tables The text usually will present no more than The group differences group Discussion Discussion The first need is to give the answer to your The research question research Evidence from other papers may not be Evidence the only evidence you have to present in the Discussion; there may be counterthe evidence to be presented and assessed. The Discussion The According to Robert Day (How to Write How and Publish a Scientific Paper), a and ), Discussion should: Discussion Try to present the principles, relationships, Try and generalizations shown by the Results. (Keep in mind that you discuss; you do not discuss you recapitulate the Results). recapitulate Point out any exceptions or any lack of Point correlation, and define unsettled points correlation, The Discussion The According to Day (Continued): Show how your results and interpretations Show agree or contrast with previously published work work Don’t be shy; discuss the theoretical Don’t implications of your work, as well as any possible practical applications possible The Discussion The And more from Day: State your conclusion, as clearly as possible Summarize your evidence for each Summarize each conclusion. Or, as the wise old scientist will tell you, “Never assume anything except a 4% mortgage.” mortgage.” In simple terms, the primary purpose of In the Discussion is to show the relationship among observed facts among The Discussion The Too often, the significance of the results is Too not discussed or addressed adequately. End the Discussion with a short summary End or conclusion regarding the significance of the work the The Conclusion The “The research paper is based on The principles of critical argument. In the research you are reporting, you have raised a question, gathered evidence bearing on the question, and produced an answer. Therefore, the content of your paper should include all the elements needed for clear and fair argument… needed The Conclusion The (Cont)”…and its structure should be built (Cont)”…and on the natural sequence of question, evidence, and answer fitted into a format that reproduces the sequence of steps in the research.” the The Conclusion The This summarizes your findings and your This thoughts as to the importance of the work you did. ...
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