Session 5 CRT - The Structured Abstract The Session 5 C507...

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Unformatted text preview: The Structured Abstract The Session 5 C507 Scientific Writing Functions of an Abstract Functions Provide the reader with information Provide regarding the research performed regarding This may determine if the paper is read Serves as a “miniature” of the research Prose Abstract Prose Until the last few years, and still in some Until cases, abstracts were prepared as a short prose summary of the article prose But, there was trouble in paradise… The Problem The Squires BP. Abstracts: the need for Squires improvement. Can Med Assoc J 1991;144:421 1991;144:421 56% of abstracts did not report the technical 56% design of the study design 79% did not describe how subjects were 79% selected selected 86% did not address limitations 93% made no recommendations for future 93% study study The Answer The The purpose of a structured abstract is to The ensure that all the appropriate information is included in the abstract so that readers are provided full details of the work, which can save cost and time in their own work. can A Bit of History Bit Initial impetus came from Brian Haynes of Initial the Ad Hoc Working Group for Critical Appraisal of the Medical Literature Appraisal Ad Hoc Working Group for Critical Appraisal Ad of the Medical Literature. A proposal for more informative abstracts of clinical articles. Ann Intern Med 1987;106:598-604 Intern And a Bit More And In 1990, Haynes and colleagues assessed In the first few years of the use of structured abstracts abstracts Reporting errors were decreased but not Reporting absent absent Support from the scientific community was Support widespread widespread Instructions Instructions No more than 250 words Use the following general headings: Objective Design Setting Patients Interventions Instructions (Cont.) Instructions Main Outcome Measures Main Results Conclusions Objective Objective The abstract should begin with a clear The statement of the precise objective or question addressed in the report. If more than one objective is addressed, the main objective should be indicated and only key secondary objectives stated. If a priori priori hypothesis was tested, it should be stated. hypothesis Design Design The basic design of the study should be The described. The duration of follow-up, if any, should be stated. As many of the following terms as apply As should be used: should For Intervention Studies For Randomized controlled trial Non-randomized controlled trial Double-Blind Placebo Control Crossover Trial Before-After Trial For Studies of Screening and Diagnostic Tests Diagnostic Criterion standard (that is, a widely Criterion accepted standard with which a new or alternative test is being compared; this is preferred to the term “gold standard.”) preferred Blinded comparison Masked comparison For Studies of Prognosis For Inception cohort (subjects assembled at a Inception similar and early time in the course of the disorder and followed thereafter) disorder Cohort (subject followed forward in time, Cohort but not necessarily from a common starting point) starting Validation cohort or sample (if study Validation involves modeling of clinical predictions) involves For Studies of Causation For Randomized Controlled Trial Cohort Case-Control Survey (not “cross-sectional study.”) For Descriptions of the Clinical Features of Medical Disorders Features Survey Case Series For Studies that Include a Formal Economic Evaluation Economic Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Cost-Utility Analysis Cost-Benefit Analysis For new analyses of existing data sets, the For data set should be named and the basic study design disclosed study Setting Setting To assist readers to determine the To applicability of the report to their own clinical circumstances, the study setting should be described. should Of particular importance is whether the Of setting is the general community, a primary care or referral center, private or institutionalized practice or ambulatory or hospitalized care. hospitalized Patients or Other Participants Patients The clinical disorders, important eligibility The criteria and key sociodemographic features of patients should be stated. features The number of participants and how they The were selected should be provided, including the number of otherwise eligible subjects who were approached but refused. refused. Patients or Other Participants Patients If matching is used for comparison groups, If characteristics that are matched should be specified. In follow-up studies, the proportion of In participants who completed the study must be indicated. be In intervention studies, the number of In patients withdrawn for adverse effect should be given. should Patients or Other Participants Patients For selection procedures, these terms For should be used” should Random sample Population-based sample Referred sample Consecutive Sample Volunteer Sample Convenience sample Intervention(s) Intervention(s) The essential feature of any intervention The should be described, including their method and duration of administration. method The intervention should be named for its The most common clinical name (usually this is so for drugs, but can also be true for specific chiropractic techniques). specific Main Intervention Measures Main The primary outcome measurements The should be indicated as planned before data collection began. data If the paper does not emphasize the main If planned outcomes of a study, this fact should be stated and the reason indicated should Main Intervention Measures Main If the hypothesis being reported was If formulated during or after data collection, this information should be clearly stated. this Results Results The main results of the study should be The given. given. Measurements that require explanation for Measurements the expected audience of the article should be defined. should Important measurements not included in Important the presentation of results should be declared. declared. Results Results It should be indicated whether observers It were blinded to patient groupings, particularly for subjective measurements. particularly Where possible, results should be Where accompanied by confidence intervals, (ie, 95%) and the exact level of statistical significance. significance. Results Results When risk changes or effect sizes are When given, absolute values should be indicated so that the reader can determine the absolute as well relative impact of the finding. finding. Results Results Where appropriate, studies of screening Where and diagnostic tests should use the terms sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratio sensitivity, If predictive values or accuracy are given, If prevalence or pretest likelihood should be given as well. given Results Results No data should be reported in the abstract No that do not appear in the rest of the article. that Conclusion Conclusion Only those conclusions of the study that Only are directly supported by the evidence reported should be given, along with their clinical application (avoiding speculation and over-generalization) and an indication whether additional study is required before the information should be used in usual clinical settings. clinical A Few General Comments Few For brevity, you do not need to use full For sentences in all cases and for all entries. sentences This allows for more information to be This provided per unit of space. provided Structured Abstract for Literature Reviews Reviews Normal organization is: Objective Data Source Study Selection Data Extraction Data Synthesis Conclusions Objective Objective The focus of this statement should be The guided by whether the review emphasizes factors such as cause, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy or prevention, prognosis, It should include information about the It specific population, intervention or exposure and test or outcome being reviewed. reviewed. Data Sources Data Provide a summary of the data sources Provide you used, along with any time restrictions. you When a data base is used, the exact When indexing terms used for article retrieval should be stated, including constraints (ie, English language only). English Study Selection Study Describe the criteria used to select studies Describe for detailed review from among studies identified as relevant to the topic. identified Details should include particular Details populations, interventions, outcomes or methodological designs. methodological Data Extraction Data Guidelines used for abstracting data and Guidelines assessing data quality and validity should be described. be The method by which the guidelines were The applied should be stated, for example, independent extraction by multiple observers. observers. Data Synthesis Data The main results of the review, whether The qualitative or quantitative, should be stated. Methods used to obtain these results Methods should be outlined. Data Synthesis Data Meta-analyses should state the major Meta-analyses outcomes that were pooled and include odds ratios or effect sizes, and if possible, sensitivity analyses. sensitivity Numerical results should be accompanied Numerical by CIs, if applicable, and exact levels of statistical significance. statistical Data Synthesis Data Evaluations of screening and diagnostic Evaluations tests should address issues of sensitivity, specificity, likelihood rations, receiver operating characteristic curves and predictive values. predictive Assessments of prognosis could include Assessments summaries of survival characteristics and related variables. related Data Synthesis Data Major identified sources of variation Major between studies should be stated, including, for example, differences in treatment protocols, cointerventions, confounders, outcome measures, length of follow-up and drop-out rates. follow-up Conclusion Conclusion The conclusions and their applications The should be clearly stated, limiting generalizations to the domain of the review. review. The need for new studies may be stated. Abstract for a Case Report Abstract General headings include: Objective Clinical Features Intervention and Outcome Conclusion Objective Objective Clearly state what you expect the reader Clearly to take from reading your paper to Could be to describe an interesting case, Could an unusual diagnosis, a case with an interesting response to therapy, etc. interesting Clinical Features Clinical List only those clinical features that are List specific to the case; do not provide a list of normal findings normal Provide the reason why the patient sought Provide care care Where possible, provide a diagnosis Intervention and Outcome Intervention Provide detail as to the treatment offered. Provide Detail should be sufficient for the reader to Detail understand what was done understand Provide detail as to the patient response; Provide list outcome measures used and changes that occurred that Intervention and Outcome Intervention Where the purpose of the case does not Where deal directly with a response to care (ie. a case that reports an unusual radiographic finding) provide information about referral, where appropriate. where Conclusion Conclusion Case reports cannot be generalized Case beyond the results from the single case; be cautious not to discuss effectiveness, efficiency or make broad generalizations efficiency Be sure that your conclusion is supported Be by evidence from the case by ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/03/2012 for the course CLIN 51507 taught by Professor Long during the Fall '11 term at Palmer Chiropractic.

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