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Session 9 CRT - References and Citations Citations C507...

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Unformatted text preview: References and Citations Citations C507 Scientific Writing Session 9 First, An Explanation First, Reference: is “the bibliographic descriptors Reference: of documents cited in the text, tables or legends of figures of a document.” legends Citation: is “the brief formal indications in Citation: text, tables or figure legends of the documents cited and represented in the references listed at the end of the article, chapter or book.” chapter Two Major Systems Two Citation-sequence system Name-year system There are many variations to these two There systems systems Which system is selected by an editor or Which publisher should be determined by judgments on its advantages and disadvantages for the expected readership disadvantages Citation-Sequence System Citation-Sequence Here, the numeric citations in text, tables Here, and figures are the numbers that identify the references (to articles, chapters, books) listed at the end of the document. References are numbered and listed in the sequence they are first cited. sequence Subsequent citations of the same Subsequent document use the same number as the initial citation. initial Citation-Sequence System Citation-Sequence Advantages Citations interrupt only minimally the reading Citations of text (as compared to name system, where a long list of names may interrupt the flow of text on a regular basis) text Using numbers instead of names saves Using space, paper and cost space, Citation-Sequence System Citation-Sequence Disadvantages Readers have to turn to the list to find out Readers whose work is being cited whose When authors have to add or delete a When reference at a late stage, they will have to reorder and renumber reference lists (though Refman may solve that problem) Refman Visibility of author names is lower when they Visibility appear only in references and not citations appear Name-Year System Name-Year Here, citations in text, tables and figure Here, legends of the references listed at the end of the document (article, chapter, book) consist of surname of the author, by which the reference is alphabetized in the list, and the year of publication of the document. The name and date are enclosed within parentheses. Name-Year System Name-Year Advantages Adding or deleting references will lead only to Adding adding or deleting citations and will not force a renumbering of citations renumbering In some disciplines, readers may be able to In identify documents readily from the citations and will not have to turn to the references and Even if not familiar with the citation, the year Even can give a historical perspective can Authors like seeing their names cited Name-Year System Name-Year Disadvantages When large numbers of documents must be When cited, the long string of citations within parentheses may be highly irritating to readers as a gross interruption of text readers The rules for sequence of citations, The punctuation within citations and alphabetization of reference lists are more complex than for citing by number complex My Preference My JMPT uses a citation-sequence system JMPT known as the Vancouver System, in which citations occur in order of appearance. We will focus on that system rather than the name-year system name-year Listed References Listed References to articles or books published References or accepted for publication or to papers presented at professional meetings are listed in numerical order at the end of the communication communication Each reference is given a separate entry Not Listed Not References to mass circulation magazines References or newspapers, material not yet accepted for publication, and personal communications (both oral and written) are not acceptable as listed references, except in usual circumstances, and should be given parenthetically in the text given References Given in Text References In some circumstances, references may In be included parenthetically in the text be Note that in the text Note Authors name may or may not be named Title is not given Name of journal is abbreviated only when Name enclosed in parentheses enclosed Inclusive page numbers are given References Given in Text References Example: “The results were reported recently by West The (Br Med J 1981;282:355-357)” OR (Br “The results were reported recently in the The British Medical Journal (1981;282:355-357)” British References Given in Text References References to publications not acceptable References as listed references may be included parenthetically in the text parenthetically Use a concise form: name of periodical, Use data, initial page number data, References Given in Text References Examples: “The explanation is given in one recent The account (Newsweek. March 17, 1980:102)” account “The Archives of Surgery article on surgeon The glut was picked up by a local newspaper (Chicago Tribune. October 2, 1986:6)” Author Responsibility for Accuracy Author Authors are responsible for the accuracy Authors and completeness of the references in their communications. their You can expect to be queried if a You reference appears to be inaccurate reference Author Responsibility for Accuracy Author Gosling CM, Cameron M, Gibbons PF. Gosling Referencing and quotation accuracy in four manual therapy journals. Man Ther 2004;9:36-40 2004;9:36-40 Minimum Acceptable Data Minimum To be acceptable, a reference must To include certain minimal data include Journal: Author(s), article title, journal, year Journal: volume, page range volume, Book: Author(s), title, place of publication, Book: publisher, year publisher, Enough information to identify and retrieve Enough the material should be provided the Number Permitted Number A good indication of the reliability of an good author’s work is the type and number of references selected. references Too many references may indicate a lack of Too critical thinking critical Too few references may suggest the Too possibility of unwarranted speculation possibility Number Permitted Number References have two major purposes Documentation Acknowledgement Acknowledgement references should be Acknowledgement limited to reports that have contributed substantially to the author’s own current work. work. Numbering Numbering References should be numbered References consecutively, using Arabic numerals, in the order in which they are cited in text the Unnumbered references are only rarely Unnumbered used, and in such cases, they usually appear alphabetically as a list of selected readings readings Citation Citation Each reference should be cited in the text Citation may also be made in tables, Citation figures and legends figures Use Arabic superscript numerals These appear outside periods and commas These appear inside colons and semicolons Citation Citation When more than 2 references are cited at When a given place, use hyphens to join the first and last numbers of a closed series and Use commas without space to separate Use other parts of a multiple citation other As reported previously,1-3,8,19 The derived data were as follows3,4: Citation Citation When a multiple citation involves more When than 23 characters, use an asterisk in the text and give the citation in a footnote at the bottom of the page, ie: the As reported previously,* Note that the reference numerals in such a Note footnote are set full size, on line rather than as superscripts, and that spacing is different from the superscript method different Citation Citation If you wish to cite different page numbers If from a single reference source at different places in the text, the page numbers are included in the superscript citation and the source appears only once in the list of references references Authors Authors Use author’s surname followed by initials Use without punctuation without All author names should be provided All unless there are more than 6; if >6, then use the first 3 plus et al use Do not use and between names Do and Abbreviations for Jr, Sr and Roman Abbreviations numerals follow author initials numerals Authors Authors When mentioned in text Only surnames are used For 2 author reference, give both names For >2, give first author surname followed by For “et al,” or “and associates,” etc. “et Note: never use the possessive form of et al’s: Note: instead, use it as “The data of Doe et al were reported.” reported.” Prefixes and Particles Prefixes Prefixes containing prefixes or particles Prefixes should be spelled and alphabetized according to the preference of the persons concerned concerned 1. van Gylswyk NO, Roche CI 2. Van Rosevelt RF, Johnson KK, Van Mourik 2. JA JA Titles Titles Articles and part of books- in EnglishArticles language titles, capitalize only the first letter of the first word, proper names and abbreviations that are normally capitalized abbreviations Titles Titles Books, journals, governmental bulletins- in Books, English-language titles, capitalize the first and last words and each word that is not an article, preposition or conjunction of less than 4 letters. In every language, italicize the title italicize Foreign-Language Titles Foreign-Language Foreign-language titles are usually not Foreign-language translated; if they have been, bracketed indication of the original language should follow the title follow Watch carefully for diacritical marks Subtitles Subtitles Style for subtitles follows that for titles in Style regard to spelling, abbreviations, numbers, capitalization and use of italics, except that for journal articles the subtitle begins with a lowercase letter lowercase A colon separates title and subtitle If a subtitle is numbered, use a Roman If numeral followed by a colon numeral References to Journals References Let us focus upon how to properly cite Let journal articles in your own article journal Complete Data Complete A complete journal reference includes: Author name and initials Title and subtitle of article Abbreviated name of journal Year and volume number Part or supplement number, if applicable Issue month or number when pagination is not Issue consecutive in the journal consecutive Inclusive page numbers Names of Journals Names Abbreviate and italicize names of journals Use initial capital letters Use Index Medicus abbreviations ie, J Manipulative Physiol Ther ie, Br Med J Information in brackets should be retained Information without brackets without ie, J Bone Joint Surg Br Page Numbers and Dates Page Do not omit digits from inclusive page Do numbers numbers The year, the semicolon following it, the The volume number, the colon following it, and the page numbers are set with spaces closed up closed iie, Jones J. Necrotizing disease. JAMA e, 1980;244:2190-2191 1980;244:2190-2191 Serialized Article Serialized For a serialized article, the cited parts of For which appear in the same volume, follow this example: this Lerner PI, Weinstein L. Infective endocarditis Lerner in the antibiotic era. N Engl J Med 1966;274:199-206, 388-393 1966;274:199-206, Journals Without Volume Numbers Journals If a journal has no volume number or If paginates each issue beginning with page 1 (for example, JACA), use the following: (for Shands KN. Legionnaire’s disease. Dis Mon. Shands December 1980;27:1-59 December Abraham EP. The beta-lactam antibiotics. Sci Abraham Am. June 1981:76-97 Am. Issue Number Issue Do not include the issue number or month Do expect in the case of a special issue or when pagination is not consecutive throughout the volume. In the latter case, the month or the date of the issue is preferable to the issue number preferable Special Issue Special Reference to all of part of a special issue Reference of a journal should be given as follows: of McDonald WI. Attitudes to the treatment of McDonald multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol. October 21, 1983;40(special issue):667-670 1983;40(special Supplements Supplements The following form can be used: Blendon RJ. The prospects for state and local Blendon governments playing a broader role in health care. AM J Public Health 1981;71(suppl):9-15 care. A number of other forms may be used number depending upon the specifics depending Abstracts Abstracts Reference to an abstract of an article Reference should be permitted only when the original article is not readily available (ie, presented at a meeting but not yet published) published) Paillard A. Natural history of low back pain. J Paillard Am Chiropr Soc 1981;24:112. Abstract. Am Special Department of a Journal Special When reference is made to material from a When special department in a journal, the department should be identified only if the cited material has no byline or signature or no page number (this is preferable to citing Anonymous) citing How to lower blood pressure. Lancet How 1987;2:251-252. Editorial. 1987;2:251-252. Other Material Without Authors Other Reference may be made to material that Reference has no author or is prepared by a committee or other group. The following form may be used: form Centers for Disease Control. InfluenzaCenters Worldwide. MMWR 1979;28:51-52 Worldwide. Discussants Discussants If reference citation in the text names a If discussant specifically rather than the author, eg. “as noted by Sachs,” the following form is used: following Sachs W. In discussion: Baer RL, Andrade J. Sachs Pemphigus erythmatosus. Arch Dermatol 1996;93:374-375 1996;93:374-375 More…. More…. We just discussed journals only. You will We need to also know the rules for: need Books Special materials Legal references Websites and URLs- this is a growing problem ...
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