Session 12 CRT - Pictorial Data Pictorial C507 Scientific...

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Unformatted text preview: Pictorial Data Pictorial C507 Scientific Writing Session 12 Tables Tables When you have numerical data, especially When lots of numerical data, you will need to decide if you should make tables and what tables are needed tables Tables Tables First, check the journal Instructions for Authors First, to see what number of tables it allows to If you do not see this indicated, look at a few If past issues to get a sense of what is right So by estimating # of text words, count total of tables So and illustrations, and calculate number per 1000 words of text words General rule is no more than 1 table per 1000 words General of text- and since most manuscripts have about 250 words per page, that is no more than 1 table per 4 pages of manuscript pages Tables Tables So, now, if you know that you must have So, illustration, you may need to reduce the number of tables by one as a result number Ask yourself: Do I really need all the tables Ask I am planning? am Tables Tables Look at this table PT Penicillin 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 0 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 0 10 + Noxicillin 0 0 0 + 0 0 + 0 + 0 Tables Tables Of the 3 patients with negative penicillin Of skin-tests, one was positive to noxicillin. Of the 7 patients positive for penicillin, 2 were positive for noxicillin. The difference in noxicillin positivity between the 2 penicillin groups is not statistically significant, Fisher’s exact test (p>0.05). Fisher’s Tables Tables But some tables should be dropped, not to be But replaced by statements in text but by illustrations. These are tables important for their known or potential relationships, ie. known Data on two related variables Data on one or more variables changing over time Data that may be interesting to the reader for the Data extent of their differences and how these differences might be related to unknown factors might Tables Tables Tables should be used when the reader Tables will expect to be given exact values for numerical data numerical Two Rules for Tables with Numerical Data Numerical Do not use tables when the data can be Do summarized in the text with a few sentences, or when the relations of data to each other or to a time sequence can be made more clearly in a graph made Use tables when the readers will want the Use exact values of more data than can be summarized in a few sentences of text summarized Violations of Those Rules Violations Of course, there are some times when you Of can suspend the rules can You can abstract information from case You reports to make it reader friendly reports You can summarize information from a series You of reports of Parts of a Table Parts The parts of a table are identified by The editors and printers with terms that should be known by authors because they are often used in correspondance about revision of papers revision Parts include: Title; Field; Row; Column; Parts Column Heading; Row Heading; Footnote; Box Heading Box Parts of a Table Parts Title: should briefly describe the content of Title: the table and includes the table number. It should be informative. Titles for tables are not listed similar to figure legends, but are applied to each table. applied The title should avoid stating the The information carried by the column headings and row headings headings Further detail can be provided in the footnotes Parts of a Table Parts Field: is the space carrying numerical data Field: and descriptive terms or phrases that together illustrate the message carried by the table the Columns should be centered under their Columns headings and numerical data should be centered on expressed or implied decimals centered The content of the field is arranged in The horizontal rows and vertical columns rows columns Parts of a Table Parts Each Column Heading identifies the kind of data Each Column and descriptions lined up vertically in the column beneath it beneath Each column heading for numerical data should Each include a statement of the unit of measure and it should be consistent for all data under the heading should Each Row Heading identifies the kind of data Each Row and descriptions aligned in the horizontal row adjacent to it- also provide unit measure adjacent Parts of a Table Parts The footnotes The footnotes the table the explain details of content in Parts of a Table Parts The column headings for the field are alos The known collectively as the box heading, box and the column heading for the row headings beneath it is called the box heading from the stub (“stub” being a terms used for the group of row headings) terms Journal Style and Specs Journal A useful rule for table width in a journal useful with a double-column page is no more than 60 characters (and equivalent spaces) in a row (with its row heading) for a single-column table and no more than 120 for a table running the full width of the page. page. Journal Style and Specs Journal If you need to use a wider table, the journal may If be able to accommodate it on facing pages or by turning it sideways, but before you prepare such a table look to see if it can be split into 2 tables table Another solution would be to switch the column Another and row headings and A good test to apply to your table’s format is to good compare the number of column headings to the number of row headings. If the ratio is greater than 2:1, consider reorienting your table 2:1, Logical Table Structure Logical The reader should be able to understand The each of your tables without referring to the text text An adequate title will help to ensure that An understanding understanding You need to think about the relations of You the data so that it is all organized logically the Tables Tables Intersections of columns and rows should Intersections not be left blank. If the appropriate datum at such an intersection is “none,” indicate this fact with a zero this If the datum at an intersection is not given, If it absence should be indicated by three dots (…) or an abbreviated notation explained in a footnote, such as NA or ND (not applicable/not done), (not A Few More Rules Few Large numbers that don’t need a high Large degree of accuracy can be expressed in smaller units with appropriate column headings headings Ie, Cases per thousand- 120; rather than total Ie, cases- 120,000 casesAvoid the use of such headings as “x 103” since the reader will not know if this means “to multiply” or “has been multiplied.” multiply” A Few More Rules Few Do not mix units in a single column of data This is easier to do than you might think, ie. • Days and weeks Avoid pseudo-precision in giving Avoid percentages percentages Percentages given for compared fractions Percentages with small denominators are likely to imply statistical significance statistical A Few More Rules Few Be sure that all data in a table agree completely Be and exactly with their presentation anywhere else in the paper (abstract, text or another table) else Be sure that the data in a table is internally Be consistent- that, for example, percentages that should add up to 100% do add up correctly should Check all mathematical operations implied in a Check table table A Few More Rules Few To save space, editors may allow To abbreviations to be sued in tables that they would not allow in the text, but these should be explained in a footnote to the table table A Few More Rules Few Shorthand forms for dates, such as Shorthand 5/15/99, can be misunderstood in different countries. In Europe, 4/11/81 means the fourth of November 1981; in the US it means the 11th of April. means Use the form: number of day/abbreviated Use month/abbreviated year to avoid misunderstanding: 4 Nov 81 misunderstanding: A Few More Rules Few Double space entries Do not use internal rules and lines in Do tables except for under column headings to separate them clearly from the field to Start each table on a separate page KISS Illustrations Illustrations Illustrations should not be used because Illustrations they are available, but for one or more of three needs three Evidence Efficiency Emphasis Evidence Evidence Illustrations should be used only when Illustrations they carry evidence needed to support a conclusion conclusion Efficiency Efficiency An illustration may be far more efficient in An presenting the evidence for a conclusion in the paper than a long statement in the text. text. Emphasis Emphasis Emphasis is the reason least likely to be Emphasis accepted by the editor for use of illustrations. illustrations. Editorial Considerations Editorial You should retain those illustrations that You are justified by needs of evidence, efficiency or emphasis- and reject all others or the editor will do it for you others Editors want to hold down the total number Editors of illustrations because of high costs and difficulties in page layout. Editorial Considerations Editorial We have two rules on We not using not illustrations: illustrations: Do not use illustrations to make points that Do can be stated just as clearly and convincingly in the text in Do not use illustrations that duplicate data Do presented in tables presented Or: “When in doubt, leave it out.” Illustrations Illustrations Halftones- tone patterns of shapes from Halftones- white through black of a continuous tone image made by photographing or scanning through a finely ruled screen with corssing opaque lines; the screening reduces the tones to a dot formation for reproduction by printing reproduction Illustrations Illustrations Line art- graphs, algorithms, tracings, Line schematic drawings, charts schematic Illustrations Illustrations Each illustrations should be cited, in Each consecutive order, in the text and accompanied by a legend accompanied Technical Specs Technical B/W Submit as unmounted high-contrast glossy Submit prints, 5x7 inches in size prints, If using a computer, do not send dot matrix If copy copy Do not send original radiographs- send prints You will need to send 3 copies (one for You production, 2 for review) production, Technical Specs Technical Label each picture on the back, with your Label name and with an arrow indicating the top (prepare the label for the back before affixing it) affixing Do not submit any color prints without Do editorial approval- color is horribly expensive to reproduce expensive Technical Specs Technical If letters or symbols (such as arrows) If would aid in understanding, you can: would Put them on the glossy using press-on art, or Use a duplicate set of figures and indicate on Use them where you need the arrows placed them Match the size of letter or symbol to the Match illustration so when it is reduced or enlarged it can be read properly enlarged Technical Specs Technical It is better to list each separate illustration It as a separate illustration as By which I mean, do not make a set of Figure By 1a, 1b, 1c, unless it is critical that all such figures be set and placed in close proximity. Also, this is confusing when it comes to preparing a legend for the complex figure. preparing Technical Specs Technical On line art graphs, each axis should be On clearly labeled with the quantity measured and the units of measure used. and Technical Specs Technical Where color and B/W is being used in one Where article, do not number these sequentially if the color and the B/W are mixed together. This adds huge cost and means that the color will print on more than one pagecolor is usually set all together in the middle. middle. Photo Consent Photo You need consent from any person You depicted in a photograph depicted From a patient or subject From a doctor, even if an author If a minor, permission is needed from If both both parents (this is a journal requirement, not a legal one in most states- unless parents are divorced, and then you need both) are Legends Legends Provide a legend for each figure in the Provide paper paper Put all legends on one sheet (more if needed) Put at the end of the paper at Make sure you have a “call-out” for each Make figure in the text figure ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/03/2012 for the course CLIN 51507 taught by Professor Long during the Fall '11 term at Palmer Chiropractic.

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