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Week 1b Chapter 3, 4, 5 Physics & the Atom and EMF 63

Week 1b Chapter 3, 4, 5 Physics & the Atom and EMF...

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Chapter 3 Fundamentals of Physics & Chapter 4 The Atom Physics is the study of the interaction of matter & energy. Physicist strive for simplicity. There are three base quantities. Mass Length Time.
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Base Quantities Support Derived Quantities From the base quantities, derived quantities are formed. For radiology there are special quantities. Exposure Dose Dose equivalent Activity
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Units of Measure Every measurement has two parts: a magnitude and a unit. Four systems of units MKS (meters, kilograms, seconds) CGS ( centimeters, grams, seconds) British (Foot, Pound, Seconds) International (SI) (Meter, Kilogram, Seconds)
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Standards of Mass and Time Mass: The kilogram is the unit for Mass. Mass is not weight. For weight: The Newton or British Pound are used. Time: Time is measured in seconds
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Systems of Units The pound is actually a unit of force but is related to mass. The SI has four additional base units. There are special derived units and special units for derived quantities & special quantities.
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SI units for Radiologic Quantities British Exposure Dose Dose Equivalent Activity SI • C/kg Air Kerma (Gy a ) • J/kg Gray (Gy t ) J/kg Seivert (Sv) s -1 Becquerel (Bq)
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Direction of Motion Mechanics deals with the motion of objects. Motion of an object is described by the use of two terms: Velocity or speed or how fast the object is moving. Acceleration or the rate of change of velocity. Velocity of light c= 3 x 10 8 m/s
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Velocity or Speed Velocity is how fast an object is moving or the rate of change of position in time. The metric measure is kilometers per hour or meters per second. V= Distance / Time Average velocity is determined by adding the initial velocity and final velocity and dividing by 2.
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Acceleration Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity. It is measured in m/s 2. Acceleration is velocity divided by time or distance divided twice by time If velocity is constant, the acceleration would be zero.
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Newton’s Laws of Motion Newton’s First Law : A body will remain at rest or continue moving with a constant velocity in a straight line unless acted on by an external force. The Law of Inertia
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Newton’s Laws of Motion Newton’s second law define force : The force (F) acting on an object with acceleration (a) is equal to the mass (m) multiplied by the acceleration. Force is mass times acceleration. SI unit is Newton CGS unit is dyne. (1N=10 3 dyne) F=ma
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Newton’s Laws of Motion Newton’s Third Law : To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
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Weight WT = mg Weight (WT) is a force on a body caused by gravity. This rate is called the acceleration of gravity (g) The value for earth are: SI g= 9.8 m/s 2 CGS g= 980 cm/s 2 British g= 32 ft/s 2
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Momentum p = mv Momentum is represented by p Momentum is the product of mass and velocity.
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