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Week 7 a Chapter 33 Radiobiology 47

Week 7 a Chapter 33 Radiobiology 47 - Chapter 33...

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Chapter 33 Radiobiology Radiobiology is the study of the effects of ionizing radiation on biologic tissues. The ultimate goal of research is to develop dose-response relationships so the effects of planned doses can be predicted and the response to accidental exposure better managed.
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Radiobiology The effect of x-ray radiation on humans is the result of interactions at the atomic level. The forms of interaction: Ionization of the tissue Excitation of orbital electrons Results is the disposition of energy in the tissues.
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Effects of Ionizing Radiation Exposure When the atom is ionized, its chemical bonding properties change. If the atom is part of a large molecule, it result in breakage of the the molecule or relocation of the atom within the molecule. The abnormal molecule may function improperly or die.
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Effects of Ionizing Radiation Exposure This may result in serious impairment of the cell function or cell death. This process can be reversible if the atom attracts a free electron. Molecules can be mended by repair enzymes. Cells and tissue can regenerate.
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Types of Radiation Response If the response to radiation happens in minutes or days it is referred to as early effects of radiation. If the responds is not observed for six months or more, it is termed to be late effects of radiation.
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Early Responses to Radiation in Humans Acute radiation syndrome Hematological Syndrome Gastrointestinal Syndrome Central Nervous System Syndrome Local tissue damage Skin Gonads Extremities
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Early Responses to Radiation in Humans Hematological depression Cytogenesis damage
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Late Responses to Radiation in Humans Leukemia Other malignant disease Bone Cancer Lung Cancer Thyroid Cancer Breast Cancer
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Late Responses to Radiation in Humans Local tissue damage Skin Gonads Eyes Shortened life span Genetic damage Cytogenesis damage Doubling dose Genetically significant dose
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Effects of Fetal Irradiation in Humans Prenatal death Neonatal death Congenital malformations Childhood malignancy Diminished growth and development.
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Effects of Irradiation in Humans Most of the observed effects have been observed after rather large doses. As operators of x-ray machines, we must assume that even small doses can be harmful.
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Human Populations in Which Radiation Effects have Been Observed Population American radiologists Atomic bomb survivors Radiation accident victims Marshall Islanders Uranium miners Radium watch dial painters Patients treated with 131 I Children treated for enlarged thymus Irradiation in utero Volunteer convicts Effect
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