Jim Crow - Jim Crow In A Nutshell By the mid-1880s, a new...

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Jim Crow In A Nutshell By the mid-1880s, a new generation of southern blacks—the first to be born after Emancipation —had begun to come of age. Many had vivid memories of Radical Reconstruction, a period of biracial democracy in which blacks seized political , educational , and economic opportunities to transform the society within which they lived. And even as the radical era came to an end, black citizens continued to vie for greater freedom, often boldly challenging centuries of anti-black traditions. These "new negroes" troubled the white South, which sought to reclaim the power it had lost after the Civil War. White lawmakers, business-owners, employers, landlords, educators, religious leaders, and politicians enforced new, more stringent patterns of racial etiquette to control black citizens who defied southern racial mores. By the end of the nineteenth century, racial subjugation and anti-black violence underpinned every economic, legal, political, and social institution in the American South. But the story of the "Jim Crow era" is much more than a mere tale of white violence and black subjugation; descriptions of disenfranchisement, anti-black laws and codes, and lynching statistics illuminate only one side of this complex tale. For nearly a century, African-Americans —black leaders as well as average men and women—resisted, rationalized, undermined, accommodated to, migrated from, and tested the limits of a system created to control every
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Jim Crow - Jim Crow In A Nutshell By the mid-1880s, a new...

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