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3 NMJ - NEUROMUSCULAR TRANSMISSION page 1 INTRODUCTION A...

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NEUROMUSCULAR TRANSMISSION AC Brown page 1 A7a INTRODUCTION A. Intercellular Transmission across Synapses 1. Types of cells connected a. neuron-neuron b. neuron-secretory gland c. neuron-muscle cell 1) skeletal muscle (somatic muscle) 2) cardiac muscle 3) smooth muscle d. other: e.g. neuron-adipose tissue cell 2. Mechanisms of synaptic transmission a. electrical, by current flow across intercellular low resistance junctions (gap junctions); rare in mammals b. release of a chemical (transmitter, neurotransmitter ) B. Functional Anatomy of the Nerve-Skeletal Muscle Junction (neuromuscular junction, myoneural junction) Note: the neurons innervating skeletal muscle cells have large, myelinated axons; their cell bodies are in the CNS; they are termed alpha motoneurons because of their function and size Note: vesicles contain acetylcholine (ACh); similar amount in each vesicle Note: the junction between the axon termination and the muscle cell motor end plate is termed a synapse ; the axon ending is termed presysnaptic ; the muscle cell end plate is termed postsynaptic
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