24 Renal Electrolyte regulation

24 Renal Electrolyte regulation - RENAL ELECTROLYTE...

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RENAL ELECTROLYTE REGULATION AC Brown page 1 A7d INTRODUCTION A. In the context of physiology and medicine, the term "electrolytes " refers to the small inorganic ions prevalent in body fluids and important in normal function: mainly sodium (Na + ), chloride (Cl - ), potassium (K + ), bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ), hydrogen ion (H + ), and sometimes calcium (Ca 2+ ) and phosphate (PO 3 ) B. The volume of the extracellular fluid (ECF) depends on the sodium content of the body because Na + and its salts (e.g. NaCl, NaHCO 3 ) are the major osmotic solutes in the ECF (extracellular fluid) C. Renal excretion of Na + , K + , and Cl - are controlled by 1. renal sympathetics: increase Na reabsorption 2. Aldosterone: increase Na reabsorption, increase K secretion/excretion 3. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP): decrease Na reabsorption RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN-ALDOSTERONE SYSTEM A. Renin 1. Synthesized by and released from the juxtaglomerular cells (modified smooth muscle cells) of the renal afferent arteriole 2. Release controlled by a. renal arterial/arteriolar hydrostatic pressure: P renin ; mechanism: decreased stretch of afferent
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24 Renal Electrolyte regulation - RENAL ELECTROLYTE...

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