chapter2 Molecular Interactions

chapter2 Molecular Interactions - Chapter 2 Molecular...

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Chapter 2 Molecular Interactions
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About this Chapter Chemistry Review Molecular Bonds and Shapes Biomolecules Solutions, Acids, Bases, and Buffers Protein interactions
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Atoms Structure of an atom Nucleus Electron orbitals or shells Atom has three components Protons Electrons Neutrons
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Elements Simplest type of matter Essential Trace Atomic number Atomic mass
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Isotopes Isotopes have different numbers of neutrons Different atomic mass Radioisotopes Unstable and emit energy Alpha, beta, gamma emissions Medical uses as tracers
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Ions Ions are charged atoms Cations Positively charged (+) Anions Negatively charged (–)
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Ionic Bonds and Ions Table 2-1
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Atoms, Elements, Ions, and Isotopes A map showing the relationship among atoms, elements, ions, and isotopes Figure 2-1 Helium loses a proton (and two neutrons) to become hydrogen Different element Isotope of the same element Ion of the same element An atom that gains or loses protons becomes a An atom that gains or loses neutrons becomes an An atom that gains or loses electrons becomes an loses an electron gains a neutron Hydrogen-1, H Hydrogen-2, or deuterium, 2H, is an isotope of hydrogen. H + is a hydrogen ion. ATOMS Protons Neutrons Electrons consist of Helium, He
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Four Primary Roles of Electrons Covalent bonds Ions High-energy electrons Free radicals Unpaired electron highly reactive Antioxidants
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Molecules and Compounds Bonds capture energy Bonds link atoms Molecules versus compounds 2 or more linked atoms A compounds contain different kinds of atoms. H2O vs O2 The forces holding atoms in a molecule are chemical bonds. Types of bonds: Ionic - exchange of electronics making ions Covalent - shared electrons Polar unequal sharing Hydrogen bonds - between molecules
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Molecules and Compounds Shared electrons in the outer shells of atoms form covalent bonds Figure 2-2b
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Types of Chemical Bonds Water is a polar molecule Figure 2-3
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Types of Chemical Bonds Covalent bonds Polar versus nonpolar Ionic bonds Hydrogen bonds
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Covalent and Ionic Bonds Covalent bonds Share a pair of electrons Ionic bonds Atoms gain or lose electrons Opposite charges attract Exchange of electrons
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Covalent and Ionic Bonds Ions and ionic bonds Figure 2-4, step 1
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Covalent and Ionic Figure 2-4, step 2
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Figure 2-4, step 3
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This note was uploaded on 01/03/2012 for the course BIO 308 taught by Professor Acbrown during the Spring '10 term at Portland.

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chapter2 Molecular Interactions - Chapter 2 Molecular...

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