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chapter8b Neurons Cellular and Network Properties 2

chapter8b Neurons Cellular and Network Properties 2 -...

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Chapter 8b Neurons: Cellular and Network Properties
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Figure 8-20 Cell-to-Cell: A Chemical Synapse Chemical synapses use neurotransmitters; electrical synapses pass electrical signals. Axon of presynaptic neuron Postsynaptic neuron Axon terminal Mitochondrion Synaptic vesicles Synaptic cleft Receptors Neurotransmitter Postsynaptic membrane
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Figure 8-21 Cell-to-Cell: Events at the Synapse and Exocytosis 1 Voltage-gated Ca2+ channel Postsynaptic cell Docking protein Synaptic vesicle Action potential Axon terminal Neurotransmitter molecules Synaptic cleft Receptor An action potential depolarizes the axon terminal. The depolarization opens voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ enters the cell. Calcium entry triggers exocytosis of synaptic vesicle contents. Neurotransmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds with receptors on the postsynaptic cell. Neurotransmitter binding initiates a response in the postsynaptic cell. Cell response Ca2+ 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
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Cell-to-Cell: Neurocrines Seven classes by structure Acetylcholine Amines Amino acids Purines Gases Peptides Lipids
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Cell-to-Cell: Synthesis and Recycling of Acetylcholine at a Synapse Figure 8-22 1 Synaptic vesicle Acetylcholine Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) Choline Axon terminal Acetate Mitochondrion Postsynaptic cell Cholinergic receptor Enzyme CoA Acetyl CoA Acetylcholine (ACh) is made from choline and acetyl CoA. In the synaptic cleft ACh is rapidly broken down by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase.
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